• The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.

International Concrete Abstracts Portal


Title: Determination of the Hardened Performance of 3D Printed Concrete for Structural Validation

Author(s): Kreiger

Publication: Web Session

Volume: ws_S22_Kreiger.pdf


Appears on pages(s):



Date: 3/28/2022

There is a desire by industry to use existing building codes and standards for construction 3D printing, Additive Construction, to reduce the time before implementation, however this is problematic, as research to date has shown that there is a clear distinction between the material and structural performance of additively constructed structures and conventional structures, resulting in the need for clear guidance to be developed. Determining this guidance is essential in occupiable and useable structures where life safety is a concern. Prior to use as structural elements it is essential that the material properties of multi-layered 3D printed elements be determined to ensure that strength and performance meets or exceeds the requirements of its application. Once these properties are determined, the performance of a 3D printed concrete structure can be more accurately predicted, calculated, and modeled. The current path for acceptance as stated in IBC section 104.11 requires a large amount investment in testing and validation for each structure. The discussion will focus specifically on the development of validation methods for designs using hardened property tests (compression, flexure, and interface) of printed elements, and structural testing of beams and walls in preparation for demonstrations of reinforced additively constructed concrete buildings, bridges, and infrastructure components.