• The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.

International Concrete Abstracts Portal


Title: Development of a 3D Printer for Concrete Structures: Laboratory Testing of Cementitious Materials

Author(s): Jun Ho Jo, Byung Wan Jo , Woohyun Cho and Jung‑Hoon Kim

Publication: IJCSM

Volume: 14


Appears on pages(s):

Keywords: 3D printing, cementitious materials, concrete structure, mortar, slump‑flow test

DOI: 10.1186/s40069-019-0388-2

Date: 3/31/2020

This study deals with (a) the development of a prototype 3D printer for concrete structures having a bed size of 1 × 1 × 1 m for a laboratory testing and (b) laboratory testing of cementitious materials with different design mixes to find their suitability and efficacy for the developed 3D printer. In this printer, a program with the concept of computer numerical controlled milling was adopted to control the nozzle motion using an easy graphic user interface program. The experiment was carried out to test mechanical control and proper material properties of the printer. Thus, the optimum values of water‑cement ratio of cementitious materials for the 3D concrete printer were determined by experimental trials. Also, the adequate viscosity of the material for layering and dispensing is determined by a slump‑ flow test. The suitable size of sands for the dispensing system was found through the trials. However, shrinkage cracks occurred during the hardening process for the paste and mortar that polyvinyl alcohol fibers are added to prevent the cracking and build an improved quality 3D printed structure. After suitable and efficient mix ratio is found, compres‑ sive strength is measured for the mechanical property. The experiments demonstrated possibility of printing concrete structure using the 3D printer.