Admixture Concepts for the Sub-Saharan African Environment with Indigenous Raw Materials

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Title: Admixture Concepts for the Sub-Saharan African Environment with Indigenous Raw Materials

Author(s): Wolfram Schmidt, Nsesheye S. Msinjili, Herbert C. Uzoegbo, and John K. Makunza

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 302

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 491-506

Keywords: admixtures; lignosulphonate; polycarboxylate ether; robustness; self-compacting concrete; starch ether; sub-Saharan Africa

Date: 6/1/2015

Abstract:
The economic use of chemical admixtures depends on supply chains. Therefore, in most regions ins sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the use of admixtures is not common practice. This amplifies the unfavorable framework for concrete construction such as fragmentary supply chains, high local cement prices, and unfavorable construction site facilities in this region significantly. The use of superplasticizer (SP) and stabilizing agents (STA) can enhance the concrete technology in SSA, since they can disassociate the concrete quality from external boundary influences. After providing a general overview of the peculiarities of the SSA boundary framework, economic concepts are provided, how existing material solutions can be significantly improved by the use of SPs and STAs based on locally available materials such as lignosulphonates and cassava starch. Finally a three step optimization process is described that helps developing flowable concrete based on materials that can be accessed in most locations in SSA.