Nonlinear Modeling of Bridge Structures in California
A. Aviram, K. R. Mackie, and B. Stojadinovic
Appears on pages(s):
abutment; bridge nonlinear modeling; column plastic hinge; response bias
This paper presents a collection of practical and readily implementable recommendations
for the modeling of highway bridges and overpasses subjected to earthquake ground motions. The specifications were developed particularly for Ordinary Standard Bridges in California as defined according to the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria. Bridge components that require special modeling considerations and nonlinear characterization are identified in this paper, establishing specific criteria for the level of sophistication required. To reduce possible errors that arise during modeling and analysis of bridge structures using a particular structural analysis program, a comparison between bridge models using SAP2000 and OpenSees analysis packages was carried out to assess sensitivities and characterize important modeling parameters. Comparisons were made between the two software packages using modal, pushover and nonlinear time history analyses. A total of six typical reinforced concrete bridges in California with box-girder superstructure and different geometries and cross sections were considered. Inconsistencies between the two analysis packages were found for peak displacements obtained through nonlinear time history analysis. Two methods of obtaining response estimate bias factors between the two programs are illustrated for the six bridges analyzed under three seismic hazard levels (50%-, 10%-, and 2%-in-50-year probabilities of exceedance).