Characterization of Deep Surface-Opening Cracks in Concrete: Feasibility of Impact-Generated Rayleigh-Waves

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Title: Characterization of Deep Surface-Opening Cracks in Concrete: Feasibility of Impact-Generated Rayleigh-Waves

Author(s): Hwa Kian Chai, Shohei Momoki, Dimitrios G. Aggelis, and Tomoki Shiotani

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 107

Issue: 3

Appears on pages(s): 305-311

Keywords: amplitude factor; attenuation; nondestructive testing; Rayleigh waves; surface-opening cracks

Date: 5/1/2010

Abstract:
The feasibility of impact-generated Rayleigh waves (R-waves) for measuring deep surface-opening cracks in concrete structures was studied. The aim is to contribute to a methodology for simple and effective in-place crack depth estimation. Specimens induced with vertical slits of different depths were prepared for measurement. A two-sensor array was implemented and elastic waves of different central frequencies were generated by mechanical impacts with steel- ball hammers of different ball diameters. R-wave amplitudes were extracted from the waveforms. Attenuation of R-waves due to diffraction and scattering by the slits and the trend of amplitude decaying with slit depth were examined. A reasonable correlation between the amplitude factor and slit depth-to-wavelength ratio was established, which indicated the loss of sensitivity in the change of amplitude factor with regard to dominant wavelengths smaller than the slit depth. By comparing the results of P-wave time-offlight (TOF) method, the results by measuring again using the proposed method confirmed the feasibility of R-wave attenuation as an alternative parameter for characterizing surface-opening cracks. In addition, it was also demonstrated potential problems associated with the reliability of P-wave TOF method in estimating a crack with limited length.