Salt Weathering of Concrete by Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Chloride

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Title: Salt Weathering of Concrete by Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Chloride

Author(s): Harvey Haynes, Robert O’Neill, Michael Neff, and P. Kumar Mehta

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 107

Issue: 3

Appears on pages(s): 258-266

Keywords: deterioration; durability; physical salt attack; salt hydration distress; salt weathering; sodium carbonate; sodium chloride

Date: 5/1/2010

Abstract:
Concrete cylinders were partially submerged in 5% sodium carbonate or 5% sodium chloride solutions for up to 3.1 years. Environmental conditions were varied during the test to promote crystallization of various salts, such as thermonatrite (Na2CO3•H2O), natron (Na2CO3•10H2O), or halite (NaCl). In sodium carbonate solution, temperature and humidity cycles that, alternately, promoted the formation of thermonatrite and natron appeared to be the major cause of scaling distress at the concrete surface. Distress by sodium chloride solution was minor.