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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Salt Weathering of Concrete by Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Chloride
Author(s): Harvey Haynes, Robert O’Neill, Michael Neff, and P. Kumar Mehta
Publication: Materials Journal
Appears on pages(s): 258-266
Keywords: deterioration; durability; physical salt attack; salt hydration distress; salt weathering; sodium carbonate; sodium chloride
Abstract:Concrete cylinders were partially submerged in 5% sodium carbonate or 5% sodium chloride solutions for up to 3.1 years. Environmental conditions were varied during the test to promote crystallization of various salts, such as thermonatrite (Na2CO3•H2O), natron (Na2CO3•10H2O), or halite (NaCl). In sodium carbonate solution, temperature and humidity cycles that, alternately, promoted the formation of thermonatrite and natron appeared to be the major cause of scaling distress at the concrete surface. Distress by sodium chloride solution was minor.
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