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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: A Summary of Important Characteristics
of Cement and Superplasticizers
Author(s): K. Yamada
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 85-96
Keywords: adsorption; particle size; polycarboxylate; poly-naphthalene sulfonate; sulfate; superplasticizers; working mechanism.
Abstract:Significant numbers of studies on the working mechanisms of superplasticizers have elucidated many important characteristics of cement. However, because of the lack of general reviews, similar research activities tend to be repeated. Therefore, it is worthy to summarize a research on this issue based on the authors' experiences, including some unpublished miscellaneous but interesting
data, irrespective of its bias or imperfection. The first point is the effect of sulfate ions on the adsorption and dispersing performances of poly- naphthalene sulfonates (NS) and polycarboxylate-type (PC) superplasticizers. With the addition of cations that make insoluble salts with sulfate ion, the dispersing performances of both NS and PC are increased. This emphasizes the importance of absorption. The second point is the effect of carboxylic groups on the initial hydration. A PC with too many carboxylic groups accelerates the initial hydration of cement. This acceleration can be controlled by the addition of soluble sulfate salts. In this case, sulfate ions increase
the dispersing performance of PC. The last point is the importance of fine particles in ultra low water-cement ratio (w/c) range. There is a suitable range of particle size around 1 pm.
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