Performance of Plain and Blended Cements in High Chloride Environments


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Title: Performance of Plain and Blended Cements in High Chloride Environments

Author(s): O. S. B. Al-Amoudi, Rasheeduzzafar, M. Maslehuddin, and S. N. Abduljauwad

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 145


Appears on pages(s): 539-556

Keywords: blended cements; bridge decks; cements; chloride ions; chlorides; corrosion; deicers; deterioration; performance; reinforcing steels; salts; strength; General

Date: 5/1/1994

Reduction in the useful service life of bridge decks in the USA and Europe and reinforced concrete structures in tropical countries due to reinforcement corrosion has been of major concern to the engineering community throughout the world. In both situations, the presence of chloride ions in sufficient quantities is the primary cause of the initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Chlorides are contributed by deicer salts in the bridge structures, while soils and groundwater charged with high concentrations of salts in tropical countries contribute significant quantities of chloride ions. In the latter regions, the low precipitation and high evaporation rates result in high salinities in the soil and groundwater. In this investigation, cement paste, mortar, and reinforced concrete specimens made with two plain cements and three blended cements were placed in a 15.7 CL - (26 percent NaCl) solution. The performance of the plain and blended cements in resisting reinforcement corrosion was evaluated by monitoring the corrosion activity at regular intervals. The effect of high concentrations of chloride salts on the physical properties was monitored by measuring compressive strength reduction. Results indicate retrogression of strength in blended cement mortar specimens placed in the chloride solutions compared to those cured in potable water. This behavior was more pronounced in the silica fume cement. However, the resistance to reinforcement corrosion of the blended cements, particularly silica fume cement, was better than the plain cements.