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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Durability of Concrete for Early Opening of Repaired Highways--Field Evaluation
Author(s): M. Nagi, D. Janssen, and D. Whiting
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 811-834
Keywords: air entrainment; bridge decks; cements; concretes; curing; deicers; durability; exposure; freeze-thaw durability; highways; latex; pavements; permeability; repairs; resurfacing; scaling; silica fume; Construction
Abstract:Under the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Contract C-206, "Optimization of Highway Concrete Technology," constructibility and performance of concrete for early opening of highway repairs were evaluated. A variety of concretes mixed using different types of rapid strength cements and admixtures were used for full-depth repair (slab replacement) of concrete pavements and for bridge deck overlays in the states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Georgia. For pavement applications, eight mixtures with different strength-gain capacities allowing for a variety of traffic opening times ranging from 2 to 24 hr were evaluated. Latex-modified concrete with Type III cement and silica fume mixes were used for bridge deck overlays. Durability evaluation of these mixtures included freeze-thaw resistance, characterization of the air-void system and deicer scaling tests, and measurement of chloride permeability. Specimens for these tests were prepared in the field and were subject to standard field curing. Tests were also conducted on cores taken from pavements and overlays at opening time. Freeze-thaw tests on beams were conducted following a modified procedure of ASTM Method C 666B, using specimens wrapped in towels during the air freeze to reduce drying from the surface during the freeze cycle. Follow-up surveys were conducted to examine the performance of these concretes under the effects of environmental exposure and traffic loading. Test results showed that overlay mixes have excellent freeze-thaw resistance. Latex-modified concrete mixes showed moderate scaling using the deicer scaling test. Chloride permeability of cores taken from silica fume overlays were lower than those of latex-modified concrete overlays. Poor freeze-thaw performance of many of the pavement repair mixes indicates that many questions still remain regarding durability of concretes designed for early opening applications. Proper air content and adequate air-void systems are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for obtaining the desired freeze-thaw durability. Microcracking in the concretes may account for some of the poor performance in freeze-thaw testing. The use of calcium chloride should be avoided, as it contributes to reduced freeze-thaw resistance.
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