Durability of Concrete for Early Opening of Repaired Highways--Field Evaluation


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Title: Durability of Concrete for Early Opening of Repaired Highways--Field Evaluation

Author(s): M. Nagi, D. Janssen, and D. Whiting

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 145


Appears on pages(s): 811-834

Keywords: air entrainment; bridge decks; cements; concretes; curing; deicers; durability; exposure; freeze-thaw durability; highways; latex; pavements; permeability; repairs; resurfacing; scaling; silica fume; Construction

Date: 5/1/1994

Under the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Contract C-206, "Optimization of Highway Concrete Technology," constructibility and performance of concrete for early opening of highway repairs were evaluated. A variety of concretes mixed using different types of rapid strength cements and admixtures were used for full-depth repair (slab replacement) of concrete pavements and for bridge deck overlays in the states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Georgia. For pavement applications, eight mixtures with different strength-gain capacities allowing for a variety of traffic opening times ranging from 2 to 24 hr were evaluated. Latex-modified concrete with Type III cement and silica fume mixes were used for bridge deck overlays. Durability evaluation of these mixtures included freeze-thaw resistance, characterization of the air-void system and deicer scaling tests, and measurement of chloride permeability. Specimens for these tests were prepared in the field and were subject to standard field curing. Tests were also conducted on cores taken from pavements and overlays at opening time. Freeze-thaw tests on beams were conducted following a modified procedure of ASTM Method C 666B, using specimens wrapped in towels during the air freeze to reduce drying from the surface during the freeze cycle. Follow-up surveys were conducted to examine the performance of these concretes under the effects of environmental exposure and traffic loading. Test results showed that overlay mixes have excellent freeze-thaw resistance. Latex-modified concrete mixes showed moderate scaling using the deicer scaling test. Chloride permeability of cores taken from silica fume overlays were lower than those of latex-modified concrete overlays. Poor freeze-thaw performance of many of the pavement repair mixes indicates that many questions still remain regarding durability of concretes designed for early opening applications. Proper air content and adequate air-void systems are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for obtaining the desired freeze-thaw durability. Microcracking in the concretes may account for some of the poor performance in freeze-thaw testing. The use of calcium chloride should be avoided, as it contributes to reduced freeze-thaw resistance.