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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Corrosion of Metals in Concrete: Lessons Learned by Examination of Field Failures
Author(s): Shiv Kumar and Robert Heidersbach
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1727-1742
Keywords: buildings; bridges (structures); chlorides; concrete durability; corrosion; efflorescence; electron microscopes; evaluation; failure; masonry; reinforcing steels; spectroscopy; General
Abstract:The corrosion of metals in concrete has become a multibillion dollar problem in the United States. Most of the research into the problem has been concerned with highway structures, primarily bridges, exposed to deicing salts and similar chemicals. Corrosion problems in buildings, concrete pipelines, and similar structures are seldom discussed in the open literature. One of the reasons for this is that many of these corrosion problems are associated with privately owned buildings and other structures involved in lawsuits. This paper presents the results of forensic failure analyses on a variety of masonry and concrete structures. Analyses using the scanning electron microscope, the Raman microprobe, and other analytical techniques are presented and compared with the highway-oriented corrosion-in-concrete literature. Instances where corrosion has occurred under conditions not addressed by the highway-structure literature are discussed. The means of preventing or controlling corrosion in existing concrete and masonry structures are also discussed.
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