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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Importance of Portland Cement Quality on the Durability of Concrete
Author(s): H. E. Vivian
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1691-1702
Keywords: concrete durability; fineness; free lime in portland cement; hydration; portland cement clinker; portland cements; soundness; General
Abstract:The soundness of portland cement has a major effect on concrete durability. Mandatory standard specifications have been widely applied to control the manufacture and quality performance of portland cements. Despite these specifications there is evidence in aging concrete to suggest that potential unsoundness, which is due to excessively large amounts of uncombined lime occurring at least intermittently in clinker, is not detected by currently specified tests. This paper indicates that significantly large amounts of uncombined lime are intermittently present in clinker, that its presence is induced by variations in material preparation and in burning conditions during manufacture, and that it remains undetected by current tests. Some possible means of minimizing the amount of uncombined lime in clinker and improving its detection and measurement are discussed.
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