Performance of Concrete in a High Chloride-Sulfate Environment

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Title: Performance of Concrete in a High Chloride-Sulfate Environment

Author(s): Mohammed Maslehuddin

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 122

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 469-494

Keywords: chlorides; concrete durability; corrosion; environments; evaluation; harbor structures; performance; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; sulfates; General

Date: 6/1/1990

Abstract:
The service conditions for concrete construction in the coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf are considered to be those of one of the most aggressive environments in the world. Deterioration of hardened cement paste due to salt attack is one of the leading reasons for poor performance of concrete structures in this region. Calcium, magnesium, sodium salts of sulfates, chlorides, and carbonates extensively contaminate the ground, groundwater, and the aggregates. In such an environment, structures built with concrete which can be rated as good in temperate climatic conditions can hardly last for a decade or two. Field and laboratory studies are in progress at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, to formulate preventive measures. As a part of this endeavor, the performance of in-service concrete structures is monitored. This paper details the investigations carried out to evaluate the performance of these concrete structures. Data developed in this investigation show that the aggressive service environment is the major cause for concrete deterioration, as such appropriate mix design techniques and construction practices are to be adopted for the production of a very dense and impermeable concrete.