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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Durability of Shotcrete
Author(s): Ernest K. Schrader and Richard A. Kaden
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1071-1102
Keywords: admixtures; air entrainment; concrete durability; shotcrete; freeze-thaw durability; latex (plastic); permeability; placing; General
Abstract:The normally high cement factors, low water-cement ratio, and good compaction of shotcrete typically produce strong, dense, and well-bonded materials when properly applied by either the wet- or dry-mix process. However, the dry-mix process is incapable of reliably, predictably, and routinely providing an adequately air-entrained hardened material that will withstand freeze-thaw cycles under conditions of saturation. Wet-mix process also has had its problems associated with conveying/pumping. Latex modifiers can be added to shotcrete that will produce a freeze-thaw durable material. The modifiers should not be used directly as a bonding agent. Very good bond can be achieved between shotcrete layers and to a concrete substrate by unmodified shotcrete placed against a surface that is near or somewhat below a saturated surface dry condition. Durability is directly related to permeability of shotcretes.
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