Evaluation and Analysis of Hammerhead-Type Pier Caps


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Title: Evaluation and Analysis of Hammerhead-Type Pier Caps

Author(s): C. C. Fu , J. Colville, and D. R. Schelling

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 133


Appears on pages(s): 255-276

Keywords: bridge piers; computer analysis; cracking (fracturing); deep beams; field tests; finite element method; measurement; performance; reinforced concrete; shear properties; shrinkage; strengthening; stress analysis; Structural Research

Date: 9/1/1992

Purpose is to present a lesson learned from the findings of the Governor Thomas Johnson Memorial Bridge, Maryland. The bridge has an overall length of 7205 ft, with 59 spans. Thirty-eight piers are made of concrete hammerhead-type pier caps with different height and cap sizes. The cracks observed on the deep water piers initiated the evaluation of these hammerhead-type pier caps. The structural integrity was questioned and several analysis procedures were taken on this case. Extensive computer analyses, including nonlinear finite element analyses were conducted. This paper also intends to depict the implementation of the Code, design methodology, and calculation procedures concerning this type of pier for engineering practices. Finally, the remedial strengthening method using the post-tensioning system is presented.