Shortening of High-Strength Concrete Members
Henry G. Russell
Appears on pages(s):
beams (supports); columns (supports); compressive strength; creep properties; deformation; high-strength concretes; modulus of elasticity; shrinkage; strains; Structural Research
When high-strength concretes are used in high-rise buildings, long-span bridges, and offshore structures, special attention must be given to the dimensional changes that occur in the concrete members. For design purposes, the length changes are usually considered to consist of instantaneous shortening, shrinkage, and creep. Instantaneous shortening depends on stress level, cross-sectional dimensions of the member, and modulus of elasticity of steel and concrete at the age when the load is applied. Shrinkage deformations generally depend on type and proportions of concrete materials, quantity of water in the mix, size of member, amount of reinforcement, and environmental conditions. Creep deformations depend on concrete stress, size of member, amount of reinforcement, creep properties of concrete at different ages, and environmental conditions. In recent years, questions have been raised about the validity of methods for calculating deformations in high-strength concrete members and the in-place properties of high-strength concrete members. These properties include compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, and creep. This paper reviews existing state-of-the-art technology concerning instantaneous shortening, shrinkage, and creep of high-strength concrete members.