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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Use of Concrete Admixtures to Provide Long-Term Durability From Steel Corrosion
Author(s): N. S. Berke and l. R. Roberts
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 383-404
Keywords: admixtures; air entrainment; calcium compounds; chlorides; concrete durability; corrosion resistance; freeze-thaw durability; diffusion; high-strength concretes; permeability; plasticizers; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; silica fume; Material
Abstract:Steel is used widely in reinforced concrete for its structural properties and because the alkaline environment normally protects the steel from corrosion. However, this alkalinity does not protect steel in the presence of chloride ions. Furthermore, in environments subjected to freezing and thawing, durability can also be affected severely. The corrosion resistance of embedded metals can be improved by the use of concrete admixtures. Calcium nitrite improves corrosion resistance by promoting passivity of metals in concrete. Superplasticizers reduce chloride ingress by allowing the use of lower water-cement ratios. Microsilica (silica fume) substantially increases concrete resistivities as well as lowering permeability to chloride. In this paper it is demonstrated how various combinations of these admixtures improve the corrosion resistance of steel in concrete, while giving greatly improved strengths, necessary freeze-thaw resistance, and handling properties conducive to rapid placement and consolidation.
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