Freezing-and-Thawing Environment: What is Severe?

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Title: Freezing-and-Thawing Environment: What is Severe?

Author(s): N. M. Vanderhorst and D. J. Janssen

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 122

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 181-200

Keywords: admixtures; air entrainment; concretes; cooling; environments; freeze-thaw durability; moisture; saturation; thermal properties; Materials Research

Date: 6/1/1990

Abstract:
Some properly proportioned portland cement-concrete mixtures occasionally show distress when exposed to freezing and thawing, while some mixtures that do not contain entrained air may appear to perform adequately despite exposure to freezing and thawing. Obviously, there is a difference in the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments. The factors affecting the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments include the temperature and moisture conditions and salt exposure. These factors are examined, along with materials properties that relate to these factors. Comparisons are made between laboratory and field moisture and thermal conditions, and the damage mechanisms most appropriate for each set of conditions are discussed. Conclusions are drawn concerning the definition of a truly severe freezing-and-thawing environment in the field, and a qualitative relationship between the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments and cooling rates is proposed.