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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Freezing-and-Thawing Environment: What is Severe?
Author(s): N. M. Vanderhorst and D. J. Janssen
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 181-200
Keywords: admixtures; air entrainment; concretes; cooling; environments; freeze-thaw durability; moisture; saturation; thermal properties; Materials Research
Abstract:Some properly proportioned portland cement-concrete mixtures occasionally show distress when exposed to freezing and thawing, while some mixtures that do not contain entrained air may appear to perform adequately despite exposure to freezing and thawing. Obviously, there is a difference in the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments. The factors affecting the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments include the temperature and moisture conditions and salt exposure. These factors are examined, along with materials properties that relate to these factors. Comparisons are made between laboratory and field moisture and thermal conditions, and the damage mechanisms most appropriate for each set of conditions are discussed. Conclusions are drawn concerning the definition of a truly severe freezing-and-thawing environment in the field, and a qualitative relationship between the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments and cooling rates is proposed.
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