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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Freeze Thaw Durability of Steel and Polypropylene Reinforced Shotcretes: A Review
Author(s): D. R. Morgna
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 901-918
Keywords: durability; fibers; freeze-thaw durability; metal fibers; reinforcing steels; shotcrete; synthetic fibers; Materials Research
Abstract:Fiber reinforced shotcretes have been used in numerous external exposure applications where the shotcrete is subjected to cycles of freezing and thawing, often in a saturated condition. This paper summarizes the results of several laboratory studies in which both wet and dry-mix fiber reinforced shotcretes have been tested to ASTM C 666 Procedure A (Freezing and Thawing in Water). It is shown that both steel and high-volume polypropylene fiber reinforced wet-mix shotcretes can be made freeze-thaw durable, provided the shotcrete is properly air entrained. Nonair-entrained fiber reinforced wet-mix shotcrete deteriorates very rapidly in the ASTM C 666 Procedure A test. In the dry-mix shotcrete process, it does not appear possible to effectively use air-entraining admixtures; in spite of this, it is shown that properly designed and applied steel fiber reinforced dry-mix shotcrete can be made freeze-thaw durable. The important criteria for making such steel fiber reinforced dry-mix shotcretes freeze-thaw durable are discussed. It is currently not possible to practically produce high-volume polypropylene fiber reinforced shotcrete using the dry-mix process, and so the inherent freeze-thaw durability of such a system is not known.
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