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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete Containing Fly Ash
Author(s): Josef Parbiarz and Ramon L. Carrasquillo
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1787-1808
Keywords: alkali-aggregate reactions; alkali content; cements; concrete durability; fly ash; portland pozzolan cements; silica; tests; Materials Research
Abstract:The effectiveness of the use of fly ash in concrete to reduce the damage to concrete due to alkali-aggregate reaction to acceptable levels was investigated. More than 1300 mortar bars were cast and tested according to the ASTM C 227 mortar bar test method, with 0, 17, 26, 34, 45, and 62 percent replacement of the volume of cement in the mixture with fly ash. The effect of silica fume in the mixture was compared to that of fly ash at 17, 34, and 45 percent cement replacement by volume. The variables studied included the type of aggregate, alkali content of the cement, type of pozzolan, percent of cement replacement, pH of mixing water, and blending of the cement with the fly ash. Both ASTM Class C and Class F fly ashes were investigated. The results indicate that the replacement of a portion of the volume of cement with an equivalent volume of fly ash tends to reduce the expansion caused by the reactivity between alkalies and reactive silica in the aggregate, provided the proper amount of cement is replaced. This amount appears to depend on the alkali content of the fly ash and on the chemical composition of the fly ash used, mainly calcium oxide content. For some high calcium fly ashes with more than 1.5 percent available alkali content, a "pessimum limit" was observed. Such a limit represents a percent replacement under which the addition of fly ash causes equal or greater expansions in the mortar bars than that of the mixture without fly ash, and above which the expansions are reduced. In some instances, more than one "pessimum limit" was detected for a given combination of materials.
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