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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Three Decades of Studying the Alkali Reactivity of Canadian Aggregates
Author(s): P. E. Grattan-BelRew and J. E. Gillott
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1365-1384
Keywords: aggregates; alkali-aggregate reactions; expansion; limestone; alkali-carbonate reactions; concrete durability; dolomite; petrography; reviews; siliceous aggregates; Materials Research
Abstract:Early studies of concrete durability problems resulting from expansive reactions between certain aggregates and cement alkalies implicated opal and other forms of poorly ordered silica as the reactive component in the aggregate. Later work showed that other types of rocks may expand in alkali and cause concrete durability problems as well. Glassy or poorly crystalline volcanic rocks, dolomitic limestones, greywackes, phyllites, and argillites are now recognized as potentially deleteriously reactive. Standard tests were developed that involve the measurement of length-change of mortar bars, concrete prisms, and rock cylinders held under constant temperature and humidity conditions. Other tests have been used in attempts to gain a better understanding of the expansive mechanisms. Petrographic studies were carried out from an early date; with the introduction of more sophisticated equipment such as the scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis, petrography now plays an increased role in this area of engineering geology.
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