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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Hardening Retarders for Massive Concrete
Author(s): H. Justnes, F. Wuyts, and D. Van Gemert
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 41-56
Keywords: admixtures; hardening retarder; heat of hydration; set
accelerator; set retarder
Abstract:The heat of hydration in massive concrete structures can raise the temperature to a level where thermal cracks can pose a problem. Hardening retarders are admixtures that lower the rate of hydration, distribute the heat release over time, and lower maximum temperature in concrete. Such admixtures will inherently lead to lower early strength, but should lead to comparable 28-day strength to reference concrete.
Relative large amounts of urea works, in particular when the additional retardation of setting (not hardening) is counteracted by the set accelerator calcium nitrate. However, these dosages are high, and urea will also slowly decompose to ammonia that may limit the urea application to outdoor use, if any.
The latest potential admixtures are combinations of minor amounts of strong setting retarders like organic acids (0.1-0.3 %) with the setting accelerator calcium nitrate (1-3%), where a true synergy between the two leads to hardening retardation.
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