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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Concrete Containing Chloride
Author(s): Takeshi Yamato, Yukio Emoto, and Masashi Soeda
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 901-918
Keywords: accelerated tests; air-entrained concretes; chlorides; concretes; freeze-thaw durability; seawater; Materials Research
Abstract:Presents results of accelerated freezing and thawing tests on non-air-entrained concretes containing chloride when tested in water and seawater, in accordance with ASTM C 666, Procedure A. A total of 25 concrete mixes were made. The water-cement ratio of the mixes was 0.55, and the percentage of chloride content as NaCl were 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 percent of the oven-dry sand by weight. Mixing water was replaced by the seawater to add NaCl to each concrete mix. A number of test cylinders were made for testing in compression at various ages, and the test prisms were cast for determining their freezing and thawing resistance. The fundamental transverse resonant frequency, the weight, and the length change of the test prisms were measured during the freezing and thawing test. The air-void parameters of the hardened concrete were determined for using sawn sections of the test prisms. The pore-size distributions of the hardened concrete were measured by a mercury porosimeter. The test results indicated that the freezing and thawing resistance decreased with increasing chloride content in both water and seawater. The air-entrained concrete containing less than 0.3 percent NaCl showed a good freezing and thawing resistance. The air-entrained concrete containing more than 0.5 percent NaCl did not perform satisfactorily in freezing and thawing tests conducted in water and seawater.
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