Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Concrete Containing Chloride


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Title: Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Concrete Containing Chloride

Author(s): Takeshi Yamato, Yukio Emoto, and Masashi Soeda

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 100


Appears on pages(s): 901-918

Keywords: accelerated tests; air-entrained concretes; chlorides; concretes; freeze-thaw durability; seawater; Materials Research

Date: 4/1/1987

Presents results of accelerated freezing and thawing tests on non-air-entrained concretes containing chloride when tested in water and seawater, in accordance with ASTM C 666, Procedure A. A total of 25 concrete mixes were made. The water-cement ratio of the mixes was 0.55, and the percentage of chloride content as NaCl were 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 percent of the oven-dry sand by weight. Mixing water was replaced by the seawater to add NaCl to each concrete mix. A number of test cylinders were made for testing in compression at various ages, and the test prisms were cast for determining their freezing and thawing resistance. The fundamental transverse resonant frequency, the weight, and the length change of the test prisms were measured during the freezing and thawing test. The air-void parameters of the hardened concrete were determined for using sawn sections of the test prisms. The pore-size distributions of the hardened concrete were measured by a mercury porosimeter. The test results indicated that the freezing and thawing resistance decreased with increasing chloride content in both water and seawater. The air-entrained concrete containing less than 0.3 percent NaCl showed a good freezing and thawing resistance. The air-entrained concrete containing more than 0.5 percent NaCl did not perform satisfactorily in freezing and thawing tests conducted in water and seawater.