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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Comparative Study of Natural Pozzolans Used in Blended Cement Production
Author(s): M. S. Akman, F. Mazlum, and F. Esenli
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 471-494
Keywords: blended cements; durability; freeze-thaw durability; mineralogical analysis; petrography; pozzolans; setting (hardening); strength; workability; Materials Research
Abstract:The economic problem of energy consumption in the cement industry obliges many countries to produce blended portland pozzolan cements. These pozzolans have different origins and mineralogical structures influencing the qualities of the concrete. The criterion of mechanical strength of standard cement mortars is generally judged sufficient for marketing theblended cement. Samples of 15 natural pozzolans used by cement factories inTurkey were investigated in this research. Petrographic and mineralogical characteristics were determined by microscopic and x-ray diffraction examination. Their properties--including density, water absorption, specific surface; article size distribution, ability to be ground, pozzolanic activity, and chemical compositions--were studied. Blended cements were prepared in the laboratory by mixing 15 percent of pozzolan with 85 percent of normal portland cement; water requirements and times of setting were determined. Flexural and compressive strengths, workabilities, drying shrinkages, and freeze-thaw resistance, determined by cycles of immersion in magnesium sulfate and oven drying were examined on standard mortar specimens. The pozzolans used were fresh or altered pyroclastic tuffs representing rhyolite, basalt, trachyte, andesite, and dacite. Some of them contained phenocrysts, clay minerals, zeolites, and calcium carbonates. They exhibited different properties as powders, in pastes, and in mortars. Reliable and distinct relations between petrographic types and engineering properties cannot be proposed on the basis of current data. Further systematic and detailed research is needed.
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