Deterioration and Rehabilitation of Berth Faces in Tidal Zones at the Port of Saint John

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Title: Deterioration and Rehabilitation of Berth Faces in Tidal Zones at the Port of Saint John

Author(s): P. Gilbride, D. R. Morgan, and T. W. Bremner

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 109

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 199-226

Keywords: concrete durability; deterioration; fiber reinforced concretes; freeze-thaw durability; marine atmospheres; repairs; shotcrete; wharves; silica fume; tests; Materials Research

Date: 8/1/1988

Abstract:
Concrete berth faces (wharves) in Saint John, New Brunswick, are subject to a tidal range of 8.5 meters and over two hundred freezing and thawing cycles a year. This location and application is perhaps one of the most severe tests for concrete, and when failure of the in situ concrete occurs, repairs must be made in adverse circumstances. In order that repairs be effective, the underlying cause for the initial deterioration must be understood so that it will not adversely affect the repair procedure. The wharves in Saint John are showing distress as evidenced by concrete spalling predominantly in the saturated area of the tidal zone. This deterioration is attributed to concrete breakdown caused by freezing and thawing actions, as well as expansion from alkali-aggregate reaction and reaction with marine salts. The method of surface preparation used and the repair method selected are described. The tidal cycles had a profound effect on the site schedule and construction details. Repair costs are also discussed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the repairs and determine the properties of the wet mix shotcrete, a comprehensive pre-construction testing program was adopted.