Selecting the Proportions for Concrete
William B. Fuller, M.Am.Soc.C.E.
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The growing use of concrete for structures in which great care must be taken to have only the best material and workmanship, has stimulated investigations into the effect of varying the relative proportions of sand and stone in the mix, the proportion of cement to the total remaining the same, and as a result it has been demonstrated very conclusively that the proper grading and relative proportion of the ingredients has a great influence on the quality of the concrete produced. To demonstrate this great effect, the writer at one time made up a set of beams six inches square and six feet long, varying these relations very widely from almost all stone to almost all sand, and broke the beams after thirty day with the following results [as further described in the paper].