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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Shotcrete in Seismic Repair and Retrofit
Author(s): James Warnar
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 299-314
Keywords: earthquake-resistant structures; reinforcing steels; renovating; repairs; shotcrete; Construction
Abstract:Simply stated, shotcrete is sprayed concrete or mortar. Because of difficulty in obtaining good compaction and fully encasing large or closely spaced bars, it has traditionally been used in thin, relatively lightly reinforced sections. Unique to seismic repair and retrofit are heavily reinforced and often thick sections. Because of its ease of application in areas of poor access and the resulting reduction in construction time and cost, the process can be especially advantageous in seismic applications. Special procedures are required, however, to obtain good quality work under the common inherent constraints that often exist and overcome the limitations. Although not widely recognized, proven procedures are well established and have been successfully used in seismic repair and retrofit applications for nearly 50 years. Basic principles of the shotcrete process are reviewed in this paper; those special procedures required for proper placement in heavily reinforced and thick sections are discussed.
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