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Title: Sulfate Attack On Hydraulic-Cement Concrete

Author(s): Bryant Mather

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 223

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 143-151

Keywords: Concrete; sulfate attack; tricalcium aluminate; ettringite

Date: 10/1/2004

Abstract:
Concrete has suffered damage as a consequence of the reaction, in the concrete, of sulfate ion and the tricalcium-aluminate (C3A) constituent of portland cement or hydration products of C3A to form ettringite. This damage, which was first reported in 1892, can be avoided if the concrete is protected from potentially harmful amounts of sulfate ion or potentially harmful amounts of C3A. Other physical and physical-chemical phenomena that have had or could have had or might have done damage to concrete have been described in the literature.