302.1R-04: Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction
ACI Committee 302
Appears on pages(s):
admixture; aggregate; concrete; consolidation; contract documents; curing; curling; deflection; durability; form; fracture; joint; mixture proportioning; mortar, paste, placing; quality control; slab-on-ground; slabs; slump test; specification.
Note: A newer version of this document exists. This document was replaced by 302.1R-15.
The quality of a concrete floor or slab is highly dependent on achieving a hard and durable surface that is flat, relatively free of cracks, and at the proper grade and elevation. Properties of the surface are determined by the mixture proportions and the quality of the concreting and jointing operations. The timing of concreting operations--especially finishing, jointing, and curing--is critical. Failure to address this issue can contribute to undesirable characteristics in the wearing surface such as cracking, low resistance to wear, dusting, scaling, high or low spots, poor drainage, and increasing the potential for curling. Concrete floor slabs employing portland cement, regardless of slump, will start to experience a reduction in volume as soon as they are placed. This phenomenon will continue as long as any water, heat, or both, is being released to the surroundings. Moreover, because the drying and cooling rates at the top and bottom of the slab will never be the same, the shrinkage will vary throughout the depth, causing the as-cast shape to be distorted and reduced in volume. This guide contains recommendations for controlling random cracking and edge curling caused by the concrete’s normal volume change. Application of present technology permits only a reduction in cracking and curling, not elimination. Even with the best floor designs and proper construction, it is unrealistic to expect crack-free and curl-free floors. Consequently, every owner should be advised by both the designer and contractor that it is normal to expect some amount of cracking and curling on every project, and that such occurrence does not necessarily reflect adversely on either the adequacy of the floor’s design or the quality of its construction (Ytterberg 1987; Campbell et al. 1976). Refer to the latest edition of ACI 360R for a detailed discussion of shrinkage and curling in slabs-on-ground. Refer to the latest edition of ACI 224R for a detailed discussion of cracking in reinforced and nonreinforced concrete slabs. This guide describes how to produce high-quality concrete slabs-onground and suspended floors for various classes of service. It emphasizes aspects of construction such as site preparation, concreting materials, concrete mixture proportions, concreting workmanship, joint construction, load transfer across joints, form stripping procedures, finishing methods, and curing. Flatness/levelness requirements and measurements are outlined. A thorough preconstruction meeting is critical to facilitate communication among key participants and to clearly establish expectations and procedures that will be employed during construction to achieve the floor qualities required by the project specifications. Adequate supervision and inspection are required for job operations, particularly those of finishing.