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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: DEF-Related Expansion of Concrete as a Function of Sulfate Content in the Clinker Phase or Cement and Curing Temperature
Author(s): M. Collepardi, J. J. 0goumah Olagot, D. Salvioni,
and D. Sorrentino
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 77-92
Keywords: delayed ettringite formation; expansion; external sulfate attack; internal sulfate attack; sulfate attack
Abstract:Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) occurs at late ages and the related heterogeneous expansion in a hardened concrete can produce cracking and spalling. There are two different types of DEF depending on the sulphate source: DEF caused by external sulphate attack (ESA) or internal sulphate attack (ISA). In the present paper only ISA-related DEF is studied with reference to the following three parameters: a) the sulfate content in the clinker phase of the cement; b) the curing temperature; c) the presence of preliminary cracks in concrete specimens. Concretes manufactured at room temperature (20°C) do not show any form of DEF-related expansion independently of the SO3 content of the clinker (1—2%) or the portland cement (2-4%). On the other hand, concretes steam-cured at 90°C and then kept under water show significant expansion related to DEF provided that the SO3 con-tent of the portland cement is relatively high (> 4%). The higher SO3 content in the clinker phases (> 2%) or the presence of preexisting cracks accelerates the DEF-related expansion. Deposition of ettringite fiber crystals occurs in the preexisting cracks or within the new microcracks. Curing at temperatures lower than 80°C, preferably lower than 70°C, is strongly recommended to avoid DEF-related risk. Blended cements with a lower SO3 content should be used in case this limit in curing temperature cannot be safely ensured.
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