Durablity of Concrete Exposed to Sea Water and Alkali Soils-California Experience


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Title: Durablity of Concrete Exposed to Sea Water and Alkali Soils-California Experience

Author(s): Thomas E. Stanton

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 44

Issue: 5

Appears on pages(s): 821-848

Keywords: none

Date: 5/1/1948

This discussion is a continuation of a discussion on the same subject published in the ACI Journal for March-April, 1938. Data not available at that time which have since come to light contribute materially to our understanding of the causes of concrete deterioration when exposed to sea water and alkali soils and appropriate corrective or protective measures. The principal new developments are: 1. The discovery that one cause of excessive expansion and cracking of concrete is an adverse reaction between certain minerals in the aggregate and the alkali constituents of portland cement, thereby providing an avenue for the ingress and deposit of aggressive salts in excessive amounts. The cure in this case is to use either a non-reactive aggregate or a low alkali or suitable portland-pozzolan cement. 2. Positive evidence that the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack is materially improved through the use of suitable air-entraining agent. Accelerated tests indicate the A.S.T.M.-approved air-entraining agents Vinsol resin and Darex are suitable and effective.