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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Diagonal Cracking and Diagonal Crack Control in Structural Concrete
Author(s): P. Adebar
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 85-116
Keywords: concrete; cracking; diagonal cracking
Abstract:A number of fundamental concepts relevant to all types of cracking are examined. A tension stiffening relationship derived from first principles indicates that traditional empirical relationships include significant residual tension stresses from untracked concrete. Service load crack strains should not be estimated using an empirical tension stiffening expression. While primary cracks continue to form up to strains of 0.00 10, due to deformation of concrete between visible cracks, the minimum strain that should be used with the stable crack spacing is 0.0005. A magnification factor must be applied to crack spacings at smaller strains, or a minimum strain of 0.0005 used to estimate crack width. Test results indicate that the 9Sth percentile crack width is 2.0 times the average crack width. Procedures for diagonal crack inclination, spacing and width are reviewed, and a simplified expression for estimating diagonal crack widths is presented. Diagonal crack widths are generally larger than flexural crack widths in members with orthogonal reinforcement due to diagonal strains being larger than reinforcing bar strains. Current code requirements for side-face reinforcement were developed to control flexural cracking, and may not be adequate to control diagonal cracking in certain exposure conditions. The simplified expression for diagonal cracking was used to develop an expression for the maximum spacing of side face reinforcing bars to control flexural and diagonal cracking in large members. A design example illustrates the proposal. Finally, it is shown how the proposed methodology can be used to extend the current AC1 expression for spacing of reinforcement near a surface in tension to treat the case of diagonal cracking.
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