Title: Guide to the Selection and Use of Hydraulic Cements
Author(s): ACI Committee 225
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 901-929
Keywords: admixtures; blended cements; cements; cement storage; chemical analysis; concretes; evaluation; hydraulic cements; mineral admixtures; performance; physical properties; portland cements; sampling; selection; tests.
Since cement is the most active component of concrete and usually has the greatest unit cost, its selection and proper use is important in obtaining the balance of properties and cost desired for a particular concrete mixture. Selection should take into account the properties of the available cements and the performance required of the concrete. This report summarizes information about the compositions and availability of commercial hydraulic cements and factors affecting their performance in concrete. Following a discussion of the types of cements and a brief review of cement chemistry, the influences of admixtures (both chemical and mineral) and the environment on cement performance are discussed. The largest part of the report covers the influence of cement on the properties of concrete. Cement storage and delivery and the sampling and testing of hydraulic cements for conformance to specifications are reviewed briefly. The report will help users recognize when a readily-available, general-purpose (ASTM Type 1) cement will perform satisfactorily, or when conditions require selection of a cement that meets some additional requirements. It should also aid cement users by providing general information on the effects of cements on the properties of concrete. Some chemical and physical characteristics of a cement affect certain properties of concrete in important ways. For other properties of concrete, the amount of cement is more important than its characteristics. The report is not a treatise on cement chemistry nor on concrete. For those who need to know more, the report provides many references to the technical literature, including ACI documents.