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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 50 Abstracts search results
September 1, 2023
Arindam Dey, Tara L. Cavalline, Miras Mamirov, and Jiong Hu
The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) in lieu of natural aggregates improves the sustainability of the built environment. Barriers to the use of RCA include its variable composition, including the residual mortar content (RMC), chemical composition, and its potential to contain contaminants, which can negatively affect the properties of concrete or present environmental
concerns. In this study, a rapid, economical method to estimate the RMC and provide the chemical characterization of RCA was developed using a portable handheld X-ray fluorescence (PHXRF) device. Models were developed using reference tests (RMC test based on the thermal shock method and chemical composition from whole-rock analysis) to correlate PHXRF results to measured values. The PHXRF shows strong potential for estimating the RMC and chemical composition of RCA. Paired with locally calibrated reference samples, the test method could be used in laboratory or field applications to characterize RCA and increase its use in bound and unbound applications.
July 1, 2023
Fayez Moutassem and Samir E. Chidiac
A requirement for achieving sustainable concrete structures is to develop a quantitative method for designing concrete mixtures that yields the target rheological properties and compressive strength. Toward this objective, this paper proposes a mathematical model approach to improve the sustainability of the concrete industry. A postulation that packing density, a function of the concrete mixture, provides the link between concrete mixture, rheological properties,
and compressive strength was investigated. Rheological models for yield stress and plastic viscosity, and a compressive strength model were adopted with packing density as a central variable. The rheological models employ a cell description that is representative of fresh concrete. The compressive strength model is based on excess paste theory to account for the concrete mixture proportions, gradation of aggregate particles, and porosity. An experimental program was developed to calibrate and test these models. Results revealed that packing density provides a consistent and reliable link, and that the concrete mixture composition can be designed to achieve the target rheological properties and hardened properties and ensure quality control. Consequently, a new mixture proportioning methodology was developed and proposed as an improvement to the ACI 211.1 mixture design method. Furthermore, a case study was conducted to test for the applicability and adequacy of this proposed method. This research outcome, which provides a quantitative approach to design concrete mixtures to meet specific strength requirements and rheology, can also be used to ensure quality control before concrete is cast.
January 1, 2023
Julie K. Buffenbarger, James M. Casilio, Hessam AzariJafari, and Stephen S. Szoke
The overdesign of concrete mixtures and substandard concrete
acceptance testing practices significantly impact the concrete
industry’s role in sustainable construction. This study evaluates the impact of overdesign on the sustainability of concrete and embodied carbon emissions at the national and project scales. In addition, this paper reviews quality results from a concrete producer survey; established industry standards and their role in acceptance testing in the building codes; the reliance on proper acceptance testing by the licensed design professional, building code official, and the project owner; and the carbon footprints that result from overdesign
of concrete mixtures. In 2020, a field survey conducted on over
100 projects documented Pennsylvania’s quality of field testing. Of those surveyed, only 15% of the projects met the testing criteria within the ASTM and building code requirements. As a result, the total overdesign-induced cement consumption is as large as 6.7% of the estimated cement used in the United States.
Sean Monkman, Ryan Cialdella, and Jose Pacheco
An important part of improving the embodied carbon of the built environment is reducing carbon emissions associated with concrete. The long-term limitations around the availability of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) to replace portland cement have driven the search for additional innovative approaches. The beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) in ready mixed concrete production has been developed and installed as retrofit technology with industrial users. An optimum dose of CO2 added to concrete as an admixture leads to the in-place formation of mineralized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and can increase the concrete compressive
strength. The improved performance can be leveraged to design concrete mixture proportions for a more efficient use of portland cement, along with the use of CO2 to reduce the carbon footprint of concrete. One producer has used the technology, starting in 2016, at over 50 plants. More than 3 million m3 of concrete have been shipped with an estimated net savings of 35,000 tonnes of CO2. The concrete produced with carbon dioxide is discussed in terms of the fresh and hardened performance, durability performance, and life
Duo Zhang and Victor C. Li
The built environment is facing an increasing challenge of reducing emissions regarding both embodied and operational carbon. As an ultra-durable concrete, engineered cementitious composites (ECC) reduce the need for repair, thus resulting in a prominent reduction of life-cycle footprints. Herein, a new version of low-carbon ECC was developed for cast-in-place applications by sequestering CO2 through mineralization. Two waste streams were pre-carbonated and incorporated into ECC as fine aggregate and supplementary cementitious material, respectively. At 28 days, the CO2-sequestered ECC exhibited a compressive strength of 32.2 MPa (4670 psi), tensile strength of 3.5 MPa (508 psi), and strain capacity of 2.9%. Multiple fine cracks were distinctly identified, with a residual crack width of 38 μm (0.0015 in.) and a selfhealing behavior comparable to that of conventional ECC. The new ECC sequestered 97.7 kg/m3 (164.7 lb/yd3) CO2 (equivalent to 4.7 wt% of final mixture) and demonstrated a 42% reduction in cradle-to-gate emissions compared to conventional concrete at the same strength level. This study demonstrates the viability of turning waste CO2 gas into durable construction materials and proposes a potential path towards carbon neutrality.
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