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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 50 Abstracts search results

Document: 

22-124

Date: 

September 1, 2023

Author(s):

Arindam Dey, Tara L. Cavalline, Miras Mamirov, and Jiong Hu

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

120

Issue:

5

Abstract:

The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) in lieu of natural aggregates improves the sustainability of the built environment. Barriers to the use of RCA include its variable composition, including the residual mortar content (RMC), chemical composition, and its potential to contain contaminants, which can negatively affect the properties of concrete or present environmental concerns. In this study, a rapid, economical method to estimate the RMC and provide the chemical characterization of RCA was developed using a portable handheld X-ray fluorescence (PHXRF) device. Models were developed using reference tests (RMC test based on the thermal shock method and chemical composition from whole-rock analysis) to correlate PHXRF results to measured values. The PHXRF shows strong potential for estimating the RMC and chemical composition of RCA. Paired with locally calibrated reference samples, the test method could be used in laboratory or field applications to characterize RCA and increase its use in bound and unbound applications.

DOI:

10.14359/51738890


Document: 

22-319

Date: 

July 1, 2023

Author(s):

Fayez Moutassem and Samir E. Chidiac

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

120

Issue:

4

Abstract:

A requirement for achieving sustainable concrete structures is to develop a quantitative method for designing concrete mixtures that yields the target rheological properties and compressive strength. Toward this objective, this paper proposes a mathematical model approach to improve the sustainability of the concrete industry. A postulation that packing density, a function of the concrete mixture, provides the link between concrete mixture, rheological properties, and compressive strength was investigated. Rheological models for yield stress and plastic viscosity, and a compressive strength model were adopted with packing density as a central variable. The rheological models employ a cell description that is representative of fresh concrete. The compressive strength model is based on excess paste theory to account for the concrete mixture proportions, gradation of aggregate particles, and porosity. An experimental program was developed to calibrate and test these models. Results revealed that packing density provides a consistent and reliable link, and that the concrete mixture composition can be designed to achieve the target rheological properties and hardened properties and ensure quality control. Consequently, a new mixture proportioning methodology was developed and proposed as an improvement to the ACI 211.1 mixture design method. Furthermore, a case study was conducted to test for the applicability and adequacy of this proposed method. This research outcome, which provides a quantitative approach to design concrete mixtures to meet specific strength requirements and rheology, can also be used to ensure quality control before concrete is cast.

DOI:

10.14359/51738818


Document: 

21-466

Date: 

January 1, 2023

Author(s):

Xiaoguang Chen, Zeger Sierens, Elke Gruyaert, and Jiabin Li

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

120

Issue:

1

Abstract:

Mixed recycled aggregate (MRA) is considered a sustainable construction material, and its use in precast concrete is currently banned due to its poor engineering performance. This paper aims to evaluate the feasibility of partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate with MRA in self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for manufacturing architectural precast concrete sandwich wall panels. To this end, five MRAs from recycling plants were characterized, out of which two were selected to develop SCC. SCC mixtures with three replacement levels and three water compensation degrees were produced, and their physical, mechanical, durability, and aesthetic properties were examined. The results showed that the incorporation of MRA dominated the mechanical properties of SCC, while the water compensation degree primarily affected the flowability and carbonation resistance. The presence of MRA had no considerable effect on the aesthetic characteristics. Up to 10% MRA in weight of total aggregates could be used in precast SCC.

DOI:

10.14359/51737333


Document: 

21-470

Date: 

January 1, 2023

Author(s):

Julie K. Buffenbarger, James M. Casilio, Hessam AzariJafari, and Stephen S. Szoke

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

120

Issue:

1

Abstract:

The overdesign of concrete mixtures and substandard concrete acceptance testing practices significantly impact the concrete industry’s role in sustainable construction. This study evaluates the impact of overdesign on the sustainability of concrete and embodied carbon emissions at the national and project scales. In addition, this paper reviews quality results from a concrete producer survey; established industry standards and their role in acceptance testing in the building codes; the reliance on proper acceptance testing by the licensed design professional, building code official, and the project owner; and the carbon footprints that result from overdesign of concrete mixtures. In 2020, a field survey conducted on over 100 projects documented Pennsylvania’s quality of field testing. Of those surveyed, only 15% of the projects met the testing criteria within the ASTM and building code requirements. As a result, the total overdesign-induced cement consumption is as large as 6.7% of the estimated cement used in the United States.

DOI:

10.14359/51737334


Document: 

22-057

Date: 

January 1, 2023

Author(s):

N. P. Kannikachalam, D. di Summa, R. P. Borg, E. Cuenca, M. Parpanesi, N. De Belie, and L. Ferrara

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

120

Issue:

1

Abstract:

This research focuses on the evaluation of the sustainability of recycled ultra-high-performance concrete (R-UHPC) in a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, and with reference to a case study example dealing with structures exposed to extremely aggressive environments. This involves the assessment of the self-healing capacity of R-UHPC, as guaranteed by the R-UHPC aggregates themselves. Recycled aggregates (RA) were created by crushing 4-month-old UHPC specimens with an average compressive strength of 150 MPa. Different fractions of recycled aggregates (0 to 2 mm) and two different percentages (50 and 100%) were used as a substitute for natural aggregates in the production of R-UHPC. Notched beam specimens were pre-cracked to 150 μm using a three-point flexural test. The autogenous self-healing potential of R-UHPC, stimulated by the addition of a crystalline admixture, was explored using water absorption tests and microscopic crack healing at a pre-determined time (0 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) following pre-cracking. Continuous wet/ dry healing conditions were maintained throughout the experimental campaign. The specimens using R-UHPC aggregates demonstrated improved self-healing properties to those containing natural aggregates, especially from the second to the sixth month. To address the potential environmental benefits of this novel material in comparison to the conventional ones, an LCA analysis was conducted adopting the 10 CML-IA baseline impact categories, together with a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to determine the related economic viability. Both LCA and LCC methodologies are integrated into a holistic design approach to address not only the sustainability concerns but also to promote the spread of innovative solutions for the concrete construction industry. As a case study unit, a basin for collection and cooling of geothermal waters was selected. This is representative of both the possibility offered, in terms of structural design optimization and reduction of resource consumption, and of reduced maintenance guaranteed by the retained mechanical performance and durability realized by the self-healing capacity of R-UHPC.

DOI:

10.14359/51737336


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