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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 263 Abstracts search results
July 1, 2020
Bruce Menu, Thomas Jacob-Vaillancourt, Marc Jolin, and Benoit Bissonnette
The experimental program reported in this paper sought to evaluate the efficiency of a range of curing methods in view of minimizing the evaporation rate at the surface of freshly placed shotcrete and preventing the detrimental consequences of early-age shrinkage. CSA A23.1-14 states that severe drying conditions should be considered to exist when the surface moisture evaporation rate exceeds 0.50 kg/m2/h (0.1 lb/ft2/h). In fact, the environmental conditions that lead to such evaporation rates are regularly
experienced on construction sites, requiring that adequate protection of the concrete surface be carried out in a timely manner after placement. This research effort is aimed at quantifying the influence of selected curing methods upon the early-age moisture loss and the resulting shrinkage. The results show that early-age volume change of freshly sprayed shotcrete can be significantly reduced by adequate surface protection. Among the investigated methods, moist curing is found to be the most effective.
Mahdi Valipour and Kamal H. Khayat
Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) can be vulnerable to variations in materials properties and environmental conditions. In this paper, the sensitivity of UHPC to changes in mixing, casting, curing, and testing temperatures ranging between 10 and 30 ± 2°C (50 and 86 ± 3.5°F) was investigated. The investigated rheological properties, mechanical properties, and shrinkage of UHPC are shown to be significantly affected by temperature changes. UHPC made with either binary or ternary binder containing fly ash (FA) or slag cement exhibited greater robustness than mixtures prepared with 25% silica fume. UHPC made with 60% FA necessitated the lowest high-range water-reducing admixture demand. With temperature increase, the yield stress of UHPC mixtures increased by up to 55%, and plastic viscosity decreased by up to 45%. This resulted in accelerating initial and final setting times by up to 4.5 and 5 hours, respectively. The increase of temperature from 10 to 30 ± 2°C (50 ± to 86 ± 3.5°F) led to a 10 to 75% increase in compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticity and 15 to 60% increase in autogenous shrinkage.
Dhanushika Gunatilake Mapa, Manjriker Gunaratne, Kyle A. Riding, and A. Zayed
Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) repair slabs experience high incidences of early-age cracking due to high temperature rise and increased autogenous shrinkage of high-early-strength (HES) concrete mixtures. This paper presents an investigation to evaluate early-age cracking mitigation strategies of JPCP repair slabs. Finite element analyses were performed to understand the effects of physical phenomena leading to early-age cracking in JPCP repair slabs. While the analyses indicate the importance of concrete hydration kinetics and viscoelastic behavior on the early-age stress development in slabs, concrete moisture loss to the base was found to be the most significant phenomenon. Numerical modeling of concrete slabs was found to be useful in predicting the stress
development in advance of costly field trials. Therefore, the proposed modeling approach can be applied to evaluate the performance of concrete mixtures prior to slab placement and thus improve and economize the current rigid pavement maintenance practices.
March 1, 2020
Michael Dopko, Meysam Najimi, Behrouz Shafei, Xuhao Wang, Peter Taylor, and Brent Phares
This study investigated the effect of four volume dosages (that is, 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%) of high-elastic-modulus carbon microfiber, shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA), and accelerating admixture (ACC) on the 24-hour compressive strength and restrained shrinkage of carbon microfiber-reinforced concrete. Additional 7- and 28-day compressive strength tests, as well as 1-, 7-, and 28-day splitting tensile strength tests, were carried out on the mixtures without and with 0.3% carbon microfiber. Results showed that, overall, increasing the carbon microfiber dosage increased the compressive strength, particularly at early ages. Splitting tensile strength results were used along with the restrained shrinkage ring results to quantify the restrained shrinkage cracking potential of the mixtures. It was found that carbon microfiber and SRA can both significantly reduce the drying shrinkage cracking potential of concrete. The combination of SRA and ACC in concrete provided compatible effects, characterized by increased early-age compressive strength, as well as reduced shrinkage and cracking potential.
Seyedhamed Sadati and Kamal H. Khayat
The research presented in this paper addresses the effect of coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) on drying shrinkage of concrete designated for transportation infrastructure. Six types of RCA were employed at 30 to 100% replacement rates of virgin coarse aggregate. Two binder systems, including a binary cement with 25% Class C fly ash and a ternary system with 35% fly ash and 15% slag were employed. Three different water-cementitious materials ratios (w/cm) of 0.37, 0.40, and 0.45 were considered. Test results indicate that the use of RCA increased drying shrinkage by up to 110% and 60% after 7 and 90 days of drying, respectively. Correlations with R2 of up to 0.85 were established to determine the shrinkage at 7, 28, 56, and 90 days as a function of aggregate properties, including specific gravity, water absorption, and Los Angeles abrasion resistance of the combined coarse aggregates. The water absorption of the combined coarse aggregate was shown to be a good index to showcase the effect of RCA on shrinkage. Contour graphs were developed to determine the effect of RCA content and its key physical properties on 90-day drying shrinkage of concrete intended for rigid pavement construction. A classification system available in the literature was also used to suggest the maximum allowable replacement rates for use of RCA in a hypothetical case study. Results suggest replacement rates of 100%, 70%, and 50% (% wt.) to limit the 90-day shrinkage to 500 μɛ when RCA of A-1, A-2, and A-3 Classes are available, respectively.
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