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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 925 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP-349_13

Date: 

April 22, 2021

Author(s):

Gonzalo A. Lozano Rengifo, Mayra T. de Grazia, Leandro F. M. Sanchez, and Edward G. Sherwood

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

349

Abstract:

Reducing Normal Portland Cement (NPC) has been a major concern of concrete industry and research community over the last 2-3 decades. As much as 8% of the global CO2 emissions stem from clinker production. Hence, a wide number of research projects have been focusing on reducing NPC in cementitious materials using numerous strategies such as the use of supplementary cementing materials (SMC’s), limestone fillers (LF) and/or advanced mixproportioning techniques. Yet, the impact of these procedures on the overall behaviour of materials with low NPC content, especially in the fresh state and long-term durability, is still not fully understood. This work aims to understand the influence of the distance between the fine particles, the so-called Inter-Particle Separation (IPS), on the fresh state behaviour of cement-base pastes designed through the use of Particle Packing Models and incorporating LF. Evaluations on the fresh (i.e. rheological behaviour and setting time) and hardened states (compressive strength) were conducted in all mixtures. Results show that IPS directly correlates with the viscosity of cementbase pastes for all shear rates appraised. Moreover, the use of LF increases the hydration rate of NPC pastes. Finally, it is clear that the water-to-cement ratio keeps being the main factor controlling the compressive strength of cement pastes with reduced NPC content and high levels of LF replacement.


Document: 

SP-347_05

Date: 

March 1, 2021

Author(s):

Serhan Guner, Trevor D. Hrynyk, and Andac Lulec

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

347

Abstract:

Current computational modeling approaches used to evaluate the impact-resisting performance of reinforced concrete infrastructure generally consist of high-fidelity modeling techniques which are expensive in terms of both model preparation and computation cost; thus, their application to real-word structural engineering problems remains limited. Further, modeling shear, erosion, and perforation effects presents as a significant challenge, even when using expensive high-fidelity computational techniques. To address these challenges, a simplified nonlinear modeling methodology has been developed. This paper focuses on this simplified methodology which employs a smeared-crack continuum material model based on the constitutive formulations of the Disturbed Stress Field Model. The smeared-crack model has the benefit of simplifying the modeling process and reducing the computational cost. The total-load, secant-stiffness formulation provides well-converging and numerically stable solutions even in the heavily damaged stages of the responses. The methodology uses an explicit time-step integration method and incorporates the effects of high strain rates in the behavioral modeling of the constituent materials. Structural damping is primarily incorporated by way of nonlinear concrete and reinforcement hysteresis models and significant secondorder mechanisms are considered. The objective of this paper is to present a consistent reinforced concrete modeling methodology within the context of four structural modeling procedures employing different element types (e.g., 2D frames, 3D thick-shells, 3D solids, and 2D axisymmetric elements). The theoretical approach common to all procedures and unique aspects and capabilities of each procedure are discussed. The application and verification of each procedure for modeling different types of large-scale specimens, subjected to multiple impacts with contact velocities ranging from 8 m/s (26.2 ft/s) to 144 m/s (472 ft/s), and impacting masses ranging from 35 kg (77.2 lb) to 600 kg (1323 lb), are presented to examine their accuracy, reliability, and practicality.


Document: 

SP-347_10

Date: 

March 1, 2021

Author(s):

Grace Darling, Stephan A. Durham, and Mi G. Chorzepa

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

347

Abstract:

Concrete median barriers (CMB) are installed to decrease the overall severity of traffic accidents by producing higher vehicle decelerations. In 2016, an update to the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) saw a 58% increase in impact severity of test level 4 (TL-4) impact conditions when compared to the NCHRP Report 350 testing criteria. This study investigates the use of fiber-reinforced rubberized CMBs in dissipating the impact energy to improve driver safety involved in crashed vehicles. Two full-scale barrier prototypes with shear keys were constructed and tested under impact conditions in a laboratory setting. Compared to the Georgia Department of Transportation specified single-slope barrier, the fiber-reinforced rubberized concrete mixture, a design with 20% replacement of the coarse aggregate by volume with recycled rubber tire chips and a 1.0% steel fiber addition, was evaluated based on its performance in toughness, energy absorption capacity, and its recoverable deformation. It is concluded that the TC20ST1 barrier performed as well as the control barrier at the impact load of 150.0 kips (667.2 kN), with neither barrier experiencing any visible damage.


Document: 

SP-347_06

Date: 

March 1, 2021

Author(s):

Thong M. Pham, Tin V. Do, and Hong Hao

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

347

Abstract:

This study experimentally and numerically investigated the impact responses of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with a rectangular hollow section (HCB) in comparison with a rectangular solid section (SCB). Experimental tests of the two types of RC beams were firstly conducted under the drop-weight impact of a 203.5-kg-solid-steel projectile. Numerical models of the beams under impact loads were then developed in the commercial software namely LS-DYNA and carefully verified against the experimental results. The numerical models were then used to investigate the stress wave propagation in the two beams. The effect of the top flange depth, contact area, and impact velocity on the impact responses of the beams was also investigated. The experimental and numerical results in this study showed that although the two beams were designed with similar reinforcement ratio, their impact responses were considerably different, especially when the shear failure dominated the structural response. The HCB exhibited a smaller peak impact force but higher lateral displacement than the SCB when these beams were subjected to the same impact condition. Besides, more shear cracks were observed on the HCB while that of SCB has more flexural cracks. Furthermore, the decrease of the top flange depth of the hollow section and the increase of the impact velocity changed the failure modes of the two beams from flexural failure to shear failure with concrete scabbing. The change of the contact area also shifted the failure mode of the beam from global response to direct shear, inclined shear, punching shear and concrete scabbing at the top flange of the section close to the impact location.


Document: 

SP-347_02

Date: 

March 1, 2021

Author(s):

Jonathan Harman, Emmanuella O. Atunbi, and Alan Lloyd

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

347

Abstract:

Many common building materials, such as concrete and steel, are understood to experience a change in apparent material properties under high strain rates. This effect is often incorporated into impact and blast design by using dynamic increase factors (DIFs) that modify properties of the material such as strength and stiffness when subjected to high strain rates. There is currently limited guidance on dynamic properties of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets bonded to concrete. Since FRP is a common retrofit material for blast and impact load vulnerable structures, it is important to have a full understanding on the behaviour of the FRP material and of the composite action between the FRP sheet and the substrate it is bonded to. Important parameters for blast and impact resistant design of reinforced concrete structures retrofitted with surface bonded FRP include dynamic measures of debonding strain, development length, and bond stress. This paper presents the results of an experimental program measuring the dynamic properties of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets bonded to concrete under impact induced high strain rates.

A series of rectangular concrete prisms were cast and fitted with surface bonded CFRP sheets to facilitate pull-out shear tests that directly measure the FRP to concrete bond. The bonded length of the CFRP sheet was variable with three different lengths explored. A series of static tests have been conducted to measure the strain fields on the FRP sheets under load up to failure. These strain fields, which were measured with digital image correlation techniques, were used to determine development length, bond stress, and ultimate strain of the FRP sheet prior to debonding. A companion set of prisms have also been cast and will be tested under impact loading to explore the same properties at high strain rates of around 1 s-1. Initial test results indicate a potential increase in both ultimate strain and bond stress, and a decrease in development length under high strain rates. The results of the larger study will be compiled and, when compared with the static companion set, be used to propose DIFs for FRP sheets bonded to concrete for use in design in high strain rate applications.

However, the main constitutive phases of SHCC, i.e. matrix, fibers and interphase between them, are highly rate sensitive. Depending on the SHCC composition, the increase in loading rates can negatively alter the balanced micromechanical interactions, leading to a pronounced reduction in strain capacity. Thus, there is need for a detailed investigation of the strain rate sensitivity of SHCC at different levels of observation for enabling a targeted material design with respect to high loading rates.

The crack opening behavior is an essential material parameter for SHCC, since it defines to a large extent the tensile properties of the composite. In the paper at hand, the rate effects on the crack opening and fracture behavior of SHCC are analyzed based on quasi-static and impact tensile tests on notched specimens made of three different types of SHCC. Two SHCC consisted of a normal-strength cementitious matrix and were reinforced with polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers, respectively. The third type consisted of a high-strength cementitious matrix and UHMWPE fibers. The dynamic tests were performed in a split Hopkinson tension bar and enabled an accurate description of the crack opening behavior in terms of force-displacement relationships at displacement rates of up to 6 m/s (19.7 ft/s).


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