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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 30 Abstracts search results
August 1, 2000
S. Pavlenko and I. Rekhtin
Today, in Russia, carbide - silicon and aluminate - silicate packing masses are generally used for lining blast - furnace chutes. They contain re-fractory clay, coal-tar pitch and resins as binders which emit carcinogenic sub-stance dangerous for a human organism. Thirty compositions of chute concrete masses excluding any carcinogenic substance were studied and tested on a chute by the Siberian State University of Industry in conjunction with the Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combine company. The best results were obtained with the following composition: 75 % fused electrocorundum, 20 % refractory clay, 5 % high-alumina cement and 7.3 % water (above 100 %). Thermal resistance in heat changes was above 25 cycles at 800 ‘C, apparent density was 2.54 to 2.75 g/cm3, compressive strength was 76.6 and 79.2 MPa at 110 ‘C and 1450 ‘C, respectively, slag resistance was 0.1 to 0.2 mm at 1450 ‘C, firing shrinkage was 0.2 % with no corrosion observed. The composition developed increased the service life by 10 times compared with the composition generally applied and does not emit any carcinogenic matters. However, in view of the economic crisis and high cost of the electrocorundum, its application is limited. Therefore, we have developed compositions with a high - alumina product (HAP), the waste from the Yurga abrasive works, as a replacement for the electrocorundum. They are as follows: (i) 35 % HAP, 20 % fireclay powder, 15% refractory clay, 30 % waste from the production of silicon carbide; (ii) 48 % HAP, 20 % fireclay powder, 15 % refractory clay, 32 % waste of silicon car-bide with a particle size distribution of 3 to 0 mm. These compositions exhibit < 50 % reduction in strengths (from 80 to 40 MPa) at 1450 ‘C with other indices (slag resistance, iron resistance, apparent density and shrinkage) being the same as for compositions containing pure fused electrocorundum. Their cost is simi-lar to that of the concrete masses generally used but the service life is 4 times longer which was proved by testing in a central chute of a blast furnace.
August 1, 1991
J. Deja, J. Malolepszy and G. Jaskiewicz G. Jaskiewicz
Studies of slag activation by alkalies have been carried out since 1973 at the Institute of Building and Refractory Materials, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, in Cracow, Poland. Laboratory tests were followed by production of the activated slag on a large scale. It appeared that the new cementing material composed of the granulated blast furnace slag mixed with an alkaline activator showed high strength and corrosion resistance. The present work deals with the problem of reinforcing steel corrosion in the alkali-activated slag mortar exposed to the attack of concentrated chloride solution. The observations of reinforcement in ordinary portland cement (OPC) mortars, OPC plus silica fume (SF) mortar, or OPC plus limestone flour mortar were carried out simultaneously. The resistance of alkali-activated slag mortar to the attack of a solution of high Cl- concentration was proved previously. The effective, protective action of the alkali-activated slag mortar was confirmed by electrochemical measurements and weight loss determination after 365 days' exposure to a chloride solution. A similar effect was found in the case of silica fume or limestone flour addition to the OPC mortar, but the corrosion of the reinforcement was clearly visible, as shown by corrosion pits in the reference standard OPC mortar samples.
November 1, 1984
David R. Lankard and Jeffrey K. Newell
Steel fiber reinforced concretes (SFRC) are typically prepared by adding the fiber along with the other concrete ingredients in the mixing operation. Using this "premix" approach, it is possible to incorporate up to about 265 lb/yd3 (2 volume percent) of fiber into the concrete. At fiber contents in excess of 2 volume percent, the SFRC becomes difficult or impossible to mix and place. Inasmuch as the improvements in concrete properties attributed to the fibers increase as a function of increasing fiber content, this situation places a limit on the ultimate property development in SFRC prepared using the premix approach. Recently, a procedure has been developed wherein steel fiber contents up to 18 volume percent have been provided in SFRC composites. The engineering properties of these highly reinforced composites are discussed along with a number of successful applications.
August 1, 1982
S.A. Bortz, R.F. Firestone, and M.J. Greaves
Refractory is a construction material which is used in hot, hostile environments where plain concrete fails. Although concrete practice can be used as a guide, there are many special factors which must be taken into account to develop an optimum design. A thorough understanding of these factors is essential for successful refractory castable application.
William A. Ellingson
Refractory concrete linings are essential to protect steel pressure boundaries from high-temperature aggressive erosive/corrosive environments in many energy-intensive commercial processes such as blast furnaces and petrochemical plants, and in new industries such as synthetic fuel production. Advanced nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing the integrity of refractory linings. Radiographic techniques, thermography, acoustic-emission detection, and optical laser interferometry have been shown to yield information on the structural status of refractory concrete. Methods using 60Co radiation sources can yield measurements of refractory wear rate and images of cracks and/or voids in pre- and post-fired refractory linings up to 60 cm thick. Thermographic (infrared) images serve as a qualitative indicator of refractory spalling, although quantitative measurements are difficult to obtain from surface-temperature mapping. Acoustic emission has been shown to be a qualitative indicator of thermomechanical degradation of thick refractory panels during initial heating and cooling. Laser interferometry methods have been shown to be capable of completely mapping refractory lining thicknesses. This paper presents recent results obtained from laboratory and field applications of these nondestructive evaluation methods in petrochemical, steel, and coal-conversion plants.
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