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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 41 Abstracts search results
July 1, 2019
Pericles C. Stivaros
A successful concrete repair project requires a close coordination of efforts between the three major parties involved: the owner, the licensed design professional (LDP), and the contractor. Lack of coordination and clear understanding of the professional and contractual responsibilities, as well as the expectations, of each party involved in a concrete repair project, could result in long legal disputes to attempt to sort out the responsibilities of each party. The greatest victim of the dispute is usually the structure itself. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has led the effort to
develop responsibility guidelines in concrete construction. ACI 132 identifies and suggests the allocation of responsibilities to various parties involved in concrete construction. ACI 132 document is applicable to general concrete construction, and it does not consider the particularities of evaluating and repairing existing concrete structures. ACI 562 provides minimum requirements for assessment, repair and rehabilitation of existing distressed concrete structures, including a discussion on the responsibilities of the licensed design professional for the evaluation and repair of concrete structures. This paper discusses the responsibilities of the licensed design professional, the contractor, and the owner through a repair case study. The paper demonstrates the need to expand ACI 132 and/or ACI 562 to include responsibility guidelines for concrete repair projects.
June 1, 2015
Frank Shaode Ong, Charles K. Nmai, James Curtis Smith, and John Luciano
The focus of this paper is a new liquid microspheres-based admixture that has been developed to provide freezing and thawing protection of cementitious-based materials under cyclic, saturated conditions, while addressing and eliminating issues typically associated with the use of surfactant-based admixtures for air entrainment. Consequently, this microspheres-based admixture provides unique opportunities and flexibility in reproportioning or optimizing current air-entrained concrete mixtures with respect to using increased levels of supplementary cementitious materials. It is also shown in the paper that the microspheres-based admixture will facilitate the use of materials that typically hinder air entrainment. A microspheres recovery test method that has been developed to measure the microspheres content of fresh content for quality assurance purposes is also presented and discussed.
April 1, 2007
J. Wolsiefer Sr.
The research goal of this project was to measure silica fume particle size distribution and conduct dispersion tests, using measured levels of ultrasound as a method to evaluate the relative agglomeration "strength" and de-agglomeration [dispersability] of the undensified and densified product forms of silica fume. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) testing of silica fume samples was performed, showing combinations of individual particles (0.02 to 0.25µm) along with loose agglomerate clusters (25 to 120µm), which could not be quantified in size distribution analysis. A specially modified laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer, with a built in digitally controlled ultrasonic processor, was developed to measure particle size distribution statistics such as mean, medium and standard deviation. Ultrasonic energy levels were determined for complete de-agglomeration of undensified and densified material, which allows the measurement of the primary un-agglomerated material particle size. A test method was developed to evaluate the dispersability or relative agglomerate "strength" of the different silica fume forms by measuring the various particle size distributions, with and without ultrasound. Through the application of ultrasound, at specific energy levels and time periods, the relative agglomerate dispersability at different bulk density levels were determined. Mortar and shotcrete performance tests were conducted to evaluate the dispersability of different silica fume product forms, for different bulk loose density levels. The mortar laboratory evaluation tests included pozzolanic strength activity index ratios and electrical resistivity measurements. The test method’s ability to evaluate product dispersability and quality assurance was further verified through a field shotcrete test program, conducted with various bulk loose densities, measuring rebound percentages, thickness before bond break and compression strength.
June 1, 2005
ACI Innovation Task Group 4
This synopsis is based on a three-part report to be published by ACI in the near future The origin of ACI’s Innovation Task Group (ITG) 4, High-Strength Concrete for Seismic Applications, can be traced back to an International Conference of Building Officials or ICBO (now International Code Council or ICC) Evaluation Report entitled “Seismic Design Utilizing High-Strength Concrete” (ER-5536). Evaluation Reports are issued by Evaluation Service subsidiaries of model code groups. An ER essentially states that although a particular method, process or product is not specifically addressed by a particular edition of a certain model code, it is in compliance with the requirements of that particular edition of that model code. ER-5536, first issued in April 2001, was generated by Englekirk Systems Development Inc. for the seismic design of moment resisting frame elements using high-strength concrete. High-strength concrete was defined as “normal-weight concrete with a design compressive strength greater than 6000 psi and up to a maximum of 12,000 psi.” It was based on research carried out at the University of Southern California and the University of California in San Diego to support building construction in Southern California using concrete with compressive strengths greater than 6000 psi. The evaluation report (ER-5536) is available on the ICC website for review. A thorough review of the above document brought up several concerns focusing on two primary areas: material and structural aspects. Irrespective of those concerns, it was evident that the evaluation report had been created because quality assurance and design provisions are needed in cities like Los Angeles to allow the use of high-strength concrete in a safe manner. Through the formation of ITG 4, ACI has assumed a proactive role in the development of such provisions with the goal of creating a document that can be adopted nationwide. The mission of ITG 4 is to develop an ACI document that addresses the application of high-strength concrete in structures located in areas of moderate and high seismicity. A structure located in an area of moderate seismicity, in modern terminology, is a structure assigned to Seismic Design Category or SDC C of the International Building Code (IBC) or the NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. A structure located in an area of high seismicity is a structure assigned to SDC D, E, or F of the IBC or NFPA 5000. The document is to cover structural design, material properties, construction procedures, and quality control measures. It is to be written or contain example language in a format that will allow building officials to approve the use of high-strength concrete on projects that are being constructed under the provisions of ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete and ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The ITG 4 document, now in draft form, addresses the material and structural design considerations when using concretes having specified compressive strengths of 5000 psi (34 MPa) or greater that must be designed considering moderate to high seismic risk. The term “high-strength concrete,” as defined by ACI Committee 363, refers to concrete having a specified compressive strength for design of 8000 psi (55 MPa), or greater. As such, this document is meant primarily for concretes in that high strength range. However, the strength level at which concrete is considered “high-strength” depends on regional factors, such as the characteristics and availability of raw materials, production capabilities, testing capabilities, and lastly, experience. Therefore, depending on the region, the specifier may wish to selectively adopt considerations referenced in this document also when using concretes with specified compressive strengths between 5000 and 8000 psi (34 and 55 MPa). Irrespective of the location or purpose for which it is used, concrete having specified compressive strength below 5000 psi (34 M
June 1, 2001
J. E. McDonald and A. M. Vaysburd
achieve durable repairs, it is usually necessary to ensure adequate bond between the repair and the existing concrete substrate. Tensile bond tests are being increasingly used for quality control/quality assurance testing. However, there has been little standardization of test methods. Consequently, a total of 266 partial-depth cores in 77 experimental repairs were tested to evaluate the effect of material properties and environmental conditions on the bond between nine repair materials and a common concrete substrate. Three pull-off testing devices were used to determine bond strengths for each of the experimental repairs. In addition, the testing devices themselves were evaluated by analyzing the magnitude and relative precision of the pull-off strengths, modes of failure, and ease of use in an effort to identify a reliable and practical device for determining in situ tensile bond. The optimum depth of core drilling into the existing substrate was determined by comparing theoretical finite element analyses of failure stress and location with measured test results.
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