International Concrete Abstracts Portal

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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-10 of 126 Abstracts search results

Document: 

18-290

Date: 

July 1, 2019

Author(s):

Rajaram Dhole, Michael D. A. Thomas, Kevin J. Folliard, and Thano Drimalas

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

116

Issue:

4

Abstract:

Fly ash concrete mixtures were tested for the chemical and physical sulfate attack. Concrete mixtures consisting of ratios of fly ashes, Type I cement, silica fume, and ultra-fine fly ash (UFFA) were tested. Four exposure conditions were simulated by subjecting the concrete specimens to: 1) immersion in 5% Na2SO4 solution; 2) wet-dry cycling in 5% Na2SO4 solution at 23°C (73°F, wet) and 38°C (100°F, dry); 3) immersion in saturated CaSO4 solution; and 4) wet-dry cycling in saturated CaSO4 solution at 23°C (73°F, wet) and 38°C (100°F, dry). Control specimens were stored in water at ambient temperature. Performance of the concrete mixtures was studied through visual inspection and by monitoring the changes in mass, length, and dynamic modulus of elasticity over time. It was found that improved sulfate resistance can be provided to the fly ash concrete by controlling water-cement ratio (w/c) and blending with Class F fly ash, UFFA, and silica fume.

DOI:

10.14359/51716678


Document: 

17-462

Date: 

November 1, 2018

Author(s):

Daniel J. Pickel, Jeffrey S. West, and Abdulaziz Alaskar

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

115

Issue:

6

Abstract:

An investigation was carried out on basalt fiber-reinforced concrete (BFRC) produced using various dosages of basalt fibers. The concrete mixture was designed with a target strength of 35 MPa (5075 psi), which is a typical strength for floor slabs and similar applications in which fiber reinforcement is often used. The concrete was tested for slump and air content in the fresh condition and for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and toughness in the hardened condition. Using these tests, the behavior of the BFRC was investigated and compared to fiber-reinforced concretes produced using similar dosages of polypropylene polyethylene synthetic fibers and crimped steel fibers. The basalt fibers were found to generally increase tensile and flexural strength (modulus of rupture), but were found to have very little effect on compressive strength and post-cracking behavior, and inspection found that the fibers had ruptured upon macrocracking.

DOI:

10.14359/51710958


Document: 

15-160

Date: 

March 1, 2018

Author(s):

David Trejo and Greg Hendrix

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

115

Issue:

2

Abstract:

Cast-in-drilled-hole (CIDH) piles are often constructed to depths that are inaccessible, and internal vibration is not performed over the length of the pile. Because of this, the likelihood of voids occurring increases. Many state highway agencies use inspection pipes to detect if voids are present along the length of the pile. High reinforcement densities and concrete void detection inspection pipes can congest CIDH piles. Although concrete void detection and reinforcement spacing are critical to ensuring adequate CIDH pile structural performance, eliminating concrete voids can also ensure expected performance. This research will assess the influence of coarse aggregate (CA) type and mixture proportions on concrete workability for CIDH pile applications. Results indicate that identifying an optimal paste volume-to-aggregate void ratio (PV/AV) can be used to proportion flowing concrete (FC) mixtures with adequate slump flow and stability. Concrete containing rounded CA achieved higher slump flow values than concrete with crushed CA at the same paste volume. However, increasing PV/AV also decreased stability. Stability was increased by increasing the FA-to-CA ratio (FA/CA).

DOI:

10.14359/51701930


Document: 

16-100

Date: 

September 1, 2017

Author(s):

L. A. Sbia, A. Peyvandi, I. Harsini, J. Lu, S. Ul Abideen, R. R. Weerasiri, A. M. Balachandra, and P. Soroushian

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

114

Issue:

5

Abstract:

A pilot-scale field investigation was conducted through which: 1) a refined ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) mixture was prepared in a ready mixed concrete plant; 2) a large reinforced UHPC block was constructed through placement, consolidation, and finishing of UHPC; and 3) a commonly available concrete curing (insulating) blanket was applied for field thermal curing of the UHPC block using the exothermic heat of hydration of the cementitious binder in UHPC. Monitoring of the reinforced UHPC block temperature over time confirmed the development of a reasonably uniform temperature and a viable temperature time history, which suited thermal curing of UHPC without any heat input. In-place nondestructive inspection of the reinforced UHPC structure pointed at timely setting and strength development, leading to achievement of ultra-high-performance status. Specimens were cored from the large reinforced concrete block and subjected to laboratory testing. The experimental results indicated that the field thermal curing was more effective than the laboratory thermal curing considered in the project, and that the pilot-scale production of the UHPC mixture produced compressive strengths approaching 170 MPa (24.7 ksi).

DOI:

10.14359/51689677


Document: 

16-293

Date: 

July 1, 2017

Author(s):

Steven B. Worley and Elizabeth K. Ervin

Publication:

Structural Journal

Volume:

114

Issue:

4

Abstract:

An inspection scheme is presented for detecting global damage in reinforced concrete structures. In-house software is used to generate quantitative damage assessment metrics. Temporal sensor data captured during a bridge inspection can be post-processed to analyze stability and produce strength representations. Structural weak points can be visually located, and the developed tool can decrease inspection time and increase its accuracy. This risk monitoring provides objective guidance on a structure’s current health as compared to any previous condition, currently limiting applications to periodic inspection. As verification, a laboratory-built reinforced concrete bridge is analyzed by comparing an as-built baseline to four damage cases with artificial pier softening. Signal processing, modal decomposition, and health quantification produced visual plots for 12 metrics indicating both damage severity and location. The developed methodology is employed to demonstrate that flexibility absolute difference, damage location vector, and modal flexibility index most accurately located pier connection damage.

DOI:

10.14359/51689724


Document: 

13-047

Date: 

September 1, 2014

Author(s):

Kevin A. Mueller, Yahya C. Kurama, and Michael J. McGinnis

Publication:

Structural Journal

Volume:

111

Issue:

5

Abstract:

This paper discusses the measured out-of-plane thermomechanical behavior of two full-scale reinforced concrete (RC) bearing wall test structures subjected to fire loading. A special skid-mounted movable gas furnace was designed and constructed for heating of one face of each wall specimen over half of the wall height through the ASTM E119 standard fire time-temperature curve. Each specimen formed one face of the furnace (that is, the specimen was not enclosed by the furnace), allowing easier visual inspections and monitoring of out-of-plane behavior on the unexposed surfaces, and the application of gravity and lateral loads on the structure. In addition to an array of discrete thermocouples, strain gauges, and displacement/rotation sensors, full-field deformation and temperature response of selected surfaces of the test specimens were captured using digital image correlation (DIC) and infrared thermography. Both test specimens were fixed at the base and free to displace vertically and rotate at the top. A constant axial load representing tributary gravity loading was applied at the top. In the out-of-plane lateral direction, the top of the first specimen was restrained, while the top of the second specimen was allowed to displace under increasing temperatures and a step-wise increasing external lateral load. The test results show that RC bearing walls are robust structures that can withstand long periods of extreme fire exposure. The out-of-plane lateral strength and stability under gravity loads, however, can be compromised due to the unsymmetrical deterioration of the concrete and reinforcing steel over the wall thickness, as well as the development of significant out-of-plane shear forces due to restrained thermal bowing.

DOI:

10.14359/51686814


Document: 

13-012

Date: 

September 1, 2014

Author(s):

M. S. Nelson, A. Z. Fam, J. P. Busel, C. E. Bakis, A. Nanni, L. C. Bank, M. Henderson, and J. Hanus

Publication:

Structural Journal

Volume:

111

Issue:

5

Abstract:

The state-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite stay-in-place (SIP) structural form systems for bridge decks is presented in this paper. This technique involves constructing a concrete deck whereby prefabricated FRP components act as both the permanent formwork and the bottom flexural reinforcement. The advantages and limitations of the technology are presented, along with the current progress of experimental and analytical investigations. Extensive laboratory investigation is presented covering numerous aspects of the system, including strength, fatigue, and environmental performance. A variety of system configurations are discussed. Examples of field applications are presented, along with evaluations of cost effectiveness and inspection considerations. The result of these investigations show that FRP SIP formwork systems can be both constructible and meet applicable code requirements for strength and serviceability. Preliminary cost assessments suggest that increases in material costs can be partially offset by savings in labor during installation. Finally, future research needs are identified.

DOI:

10.14359/51686810


Document: 

110-S23

Date: 

March 1, 2013

Author(s):

Mary Ann T. Triska, Joshua K. Goodall, and Christopher Higgins

Publication:

Structural Journal

Volume:

110

Issue:

2

Abstract:

When load-rating the large number of diagonally cracked reinforced concrete (RC) deck-girder bridges constructed during the 1950s, the modern AASHTO LRFD check of flexural tension reinforcement anchorage can limit member ratings. The rating check compares the tensile demand in the reinforcing bar to the available tensile force at the section of interest. Among other parameters, the tensile demand is controlled by the diagonal crack angle at the section. The crack angles noted in inspections are generally flatter than those in the provisions and engineers are uncertain as to the inputs. The available tensile force in the flexural steel depends on the embedded reinforcing length; however, information is limited regarding bond stress developed with larger-diameter bars for full-size specimens. This research produced new flexural anchorage data in diagonally cracked girders that will help bridge engineers evaluate older concrete bridges. The results showed that the available bond strengths are higher than presently prescribed in ACI 318.

DOI:

10.14359/51684406


Document: 

110-M14

Date: 

March 1, 2013

Author(s):

Bo Hu, Tribikram Kundu, Wolfgang Grill, Bingkang Liu, and Vahab Toufigh

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

110

Issue:

2

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation for detecting defects in concrete structures using so-called “smart aggregates.” The smart aggregates are small cylinders with piezoelectric patches inside that can be embedded in concrete structures and used as both actuators and sensors. Specimens with different types of defects such as notch, hole, and inclusion were used in this study. To evaluate the effectiveness of the smart aggregates for detecting real cracks in concrete structures, three-point bending tests were carried out on two reinforced concrete beams. The test results indicate that not only the passive defects (notch, hole, or inclusion) but also the real cracks in reinforced concrete structures can be detected by the smart aggregates. Sensitivities of different parameters (time-of-flight, energy content of the signals, wavelet packet decomposition-based damage index) for various defects were also investigated.

DOI:

10.14359/51685529


Document: 

110-M09

Date: 

January 1, 2013

Author(s):

Jese Mangual, Mohamed K. ElBatanouny, Paul Ziehl, and Fabio Matta

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

110

Issue:

1

Abstract:

An accelerated corrosion study to assess the feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) for the detection of active corrosion in prestressing strand is described. Concrete prisms with an embedded steel strand were corroded by supplying a constant potential between the strand and a copper plate while the specimens were immersed in a 3% NaCl solution. Corrosion was detected using the half-cell potential (HCP), steel section loss, and visual inspection, and the results were compared to AE data. The location of active corrosion was determined experimentally based on the characteristic wave speed. An intensity analysis approach was used to plot the relative significance of the corrosion damage and a classification chart is presented. Results indicate that AE is a useful, nonintrusive technique for the detection and quantification of corrosion damage and may be developed as a structural prognostic tool for maintenance prioritization.

DOI:

10.14359/51684369


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