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Showing 1-5 of 251 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP-347_01

Date: 

March 1, 2021

Author(s):

Iurie Curosu, Viktor Mechtcherine, Daniele Forni, Simone Hempel and Ezio Cadoni

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

347

Abstract:

Synopsis: Strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC) represent a special type of fiber reinforced concretes, whose post-elastic tensile behavior is characterized by the formation of multiple, fine cracks under increasing loading up to failure localization. The high inelastic deformability in the strain-hardening phase together with the high damage tolerance and energy dissipation capacity make SHCC promising for applications involving dynamic loading scenarios, such as earthquake, impact or blast.

However, the main constitutive phases of SHCC, i.e. matrix, fibers and interphase between them, are highly rate sensitive. Depending on the SHCC composition, the increase in loading rates can negatively alter the balanced micromechanical interactions, leading to a pronounced reduction in strain capacity. Thus, there is need for a detailed investigation of the strain rate sensitivity of SHCC at different levels of observation for enabling a targeted material design with respect to high loading rates.

The crack opening behavior is an essential material parameter for SHCC, since it defines to a large extent the tensile properties of the composite. In the paper at hand, the rate effects on the crack opening and fracture behavior of SHCC are analyzed based on quasi-static and impact tensile tests on notched specimens made of three different types of SHCC. Two SHCC consisted of a normal-strength cementitious matrix and were reinforced with polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers, respectively. The third type consisted of a high-strength cementitious matrix and UHMWPE fibers. The dynamic tests were performed in a split Hopkinson tension bar and enabled an accurate description of the crack opening behavior in terms of force-displacement relationships at displacement rates of up to 6 m/s (19.7 ft/s).


Document: 

SP-347_02

Date: 

March 1, 2021

Author(s):

Jonathan Harman, Emmanuella O. Atunbi, and Alan Lloyd

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

347

Abstract:

Many common building materials, such as concrete and steel, are understood to experience a change in apparent material properties under high strain rates. This effect is often incorporated into impact and blast design by using dynamic increase factors (DIFs) that modify properties of the material such as strength and stiffness when subjected to high strain rates. There is currently limited guidance on dynamic properties of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets bonded to concrete. Since FRP is a common retrofit material for blast and impact load vulnerable structures, it is important to have a full understanding on the behaviour of the FRP material and of the composite action between the FRP sheet and the substrate it is bonded to. Important parameters for blast and impact resistant design of reinforced concrete structures retrofitted with surface bonded FRP include dynamic measures of debonding strain, development length, and bond stress. This paper presents the results of an experimental program measuring the dynamic properties of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets bonded to concrete under impact induced high strain rates.

A series of rectangular concrete prisms were cast and fitted with surface bonded CFRP sheets to facilitate pull-out shear tests that directly measure the FRP to concrete bond. The bonded length of the CFRP sheet was variable with three different lengths explored. A series of static tests have been conducted to measure the strain fields on the FRP sheets under load up to failure. These strain fields, which were measured with digital image correlation techniques, were used to determine development length, bond stress, and ultimate strain of the FRP sheet prior to debonding. A companion set of prisms have also been cast and will be tested under impact loading to explore the same properties at high strain rates of around 1 s-1. Initial test results indicate a potential increase in both ultimate strain and bond stress, and a decrease in development length under high strain rates. The results of the larger study will be compiled and, when compared with the static companion set, be used to propose DIFs for FRP sheets bonded to concrete for use in design in high strain rate applications.

However, the main constitutive phases of SHCC, i.e. matrix, fibers and interphase between them, are highly rate sensitive. Depending on the SHCC composition, the increase in loading rates can negatively alter the balanced micromechanical interactions, leading to a pronounced reduction in strain capacity. Thus, there is need for a detailed investigation of the strain rate sensitivity of SHCC at different levels of observation for enabling a targeted material design with respect to high loading rates.

The crack opening behavior is an essential material parameter for SHCC, since it defines to a large extent the tensile properties of the composite. In the paper at hand, the rate effects on the crack opening and fracture behavior of SHCC are analyzed based on quasi-static and impact tensile tests on notched specimens made of three different types of SHCC. Two SHCC consisted of a normal-strength cementitious matrix and were reinforced with polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers, respectively. The third type consisted of a high-strength cementitious matrix and UHMWPE fibers. The dynamic tests were performed in a split Hopkinson tension bar and enabled an accurate description of the crack opening behavior in terms of force-displacement relationships at displacement rates of up to 6 m/s (19.7 ft/s).


Document: 

SP-345_06

Date: 

February 1, 2021

Author(s):

Marco Carlo Rampini, Giulio Zani, Matteo Colombo and Marco di Prisco

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

345

Abstract:

Fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites are promising structural materials representing the extension of textile reinforced concrete (TRC) technology to repairing applications. Recent experiences have proven the ability of FRCMs to increase the mechanical performances of existing elements, ensuring economic and environmental sustainability. Since FRCM composites are generally employed in the form of thin externally bonded layers, one of the main advantages is the ability to improve the overall energy absorption capacity, weakly impacting the structural dead weights and the structural stiffness and, as a direct consequence, the inertial force distributions activated by seismic events. In the framework of new regulatory initiatives, the paper aims at proposing simplified numerical approaches for the structural design of retrofitting interventions on existing reinforced concrete structures. To this purpose, the research is addressed at two main levels: i) the material level is investigated on the uniaxial tensile response of FRCM composites, modeled by means of well-established numerical approaches; and ii) the macro-scale level is evaluated and modeled on a double edge wedge splitting (DEWS) specimen, consisting of an under-reinforced concrete substrate retrofitted with two outer FRCM composites. This novel experimental technique, originally introduced to investigate the fracture behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete, allows transferring substrate tensile stresses to the retrofitting layers by means of the sole chemo-mechanical adhesion, allowing to investigate the FRCM delamination and cracking phenomena occurring in the notched ligament zone. It is believed that the analysis of the experimental results, assisted by simplified and advanced non-linear numerical approaches, may represent an effective starting point for the derivation of robust design-oriented models.


Document: 

SP-343_05

Date: 

October 1, 2020

Author(s):

Galeote, E.; Blanco, A.; Cavalaro, S.H.P.; de la Fuente, A.

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

343

Abstract:

The influence of size effect becomes an issue particularly relevant during the characterization stage of concrete at laboratory scale. The dimensions of the specimens have a direct influence on the strength measured and, therefore, selecting an appropriate specimen size is of utmost importance in order to obtain representative results to be used in the design of a structure. The notched beam test to characterize FRC is among the most extended methods to determine the design parameters of the residual strength, mainly associated to crack openings of 0.5 mm and 2.5 mm (fR1 and fR3, respectively). The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of the beam dimensions on these two parameters. For this, an analytical model able to reproduce the flexural behavior of FRC was developed. Additionally, an experimental program involving high performance fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams of dimensions 40x40x160, 100x100x400 and 150x150x600 mm was conducted. The parameters of the analytical model were calibrated for each specimen dimension using the results of the experimental program. The results show a clear influence of the size of the specimen, mainly attributed to the area of fracture and the crack crosssection.


Document: 

SP-343_18

Date: 

October 1, 2020

Author(s):

Yao, Y.; Bakhshi, M.; Nasri, V.; Mobasher, B.

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

343

Abstract:

Precast concrete segments are the predominant support method used in tunnels dug by Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) in soft ground and weak fractured rock, providing the initial and final ground support. Conventionally, steel bars are used in concrete segments to resist tensile stresses due to all loading cases from the time of casting through service condition. With traditional reinforcement, a significant amount of time and labor are needed to assemble the cages and place the reinforcing bars. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) has become more attractive for its use in tunnel lining construction as a result of improved post-cracking performance, crack control characteristics and capability of partial replacement of steel bars. Due to the strength requirements in large-diameter tunnels, which are subjected to embedment loads and TBM thrust jack forces, the use of FRC is not adequate as the sole reinforcing mechanism. Therefore, the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HRC) combining both rebars and steel fibers is frequently used in practice. Tunnel segmental linings are designed for load cases that occur during manufacturing, transportation, installation, and service conditions. With the exception of two load cases of TBM thrust jack forces and longitudinal joint bursting load, segments are subjected to combined axial force and bending moment. Therefore, P-M interaction diagrams have been used as the main design tool for tunnel engineers. Standard FRC constitutive laws recently allow for a significant residual strength in tension zone below the neutral axis. However, design capacity of HRC segment is significantly underestimated using conventional Whitney’s rectangular stress block method, especially for tension-controlled failure, since the contribution of fibers in tension zone is ignored. Methods that currently incorporate contribution of fibers on P-M diagrams are based on numerical and finite-element analyses, which are normally more complicated and not readily to be implemented for practical design tools. Closed-form solutions of full-range P-M interaction diagram considering both rebar and fiber contributions are presented in this paper for HRC segments. The proposed model is verified with experimental data of compression tests with eccentricity as well as other numerical models for various cases of HRC sections. Results show that using appropriate material models for fiber and reinforcing bar, engineers can use the proposed methodology to obtain P-M interaction diagrams for HRC tunnel segments.


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