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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 259 Abstracts search results
March 1, 2021
Seong Ryong Ahn and Thomas H.-K. Kang
Impact resistance of concrete panels has been researched since the 19th century. Studies therein primarily
focused on conventionally reinforced concrete and steel fiber-reinforced concrete. Little research on the impact
resistance of prestressed concrete exists. This paper investigated the impact resistance of prestressed concrete panels
subject to hard and soft/hollow projectiles and under an assortment of prestressing levels. Damage mode, velocity
change, impact force, and internal energy were measured and analyzed. A total of twelve finite element analyses,
which considered high strain rate effects, were performed, as well as preliminary analyses with different mesh sizes.
It is observed that level of prestressing tends to improve perforation resistance of concrete panels. Additionally,
large deformation at soft projectiles occurred during impact, consuming the greater internal energy of the projectiles,
unlike hard projectiles. As a result, soft projectiles caused a smaller degree of local failure on the concrete panels
than hard projectiles with the same mass and velocity.
Girum Urgessa and Robert Sobeski
This paper presents qualitative and quantitative assessment of material flow response during projectile
penetration of concrete targets using outputs from the finite element analysis. The assessment included two parts.
First, the movement of the comminuted concrete was analyzed by examining the normal expansion of meshless
particles using NECM (Normal Expansion Comparison Methodology). Second, the expansion of finite element nodes
adjacent to meshless particles was analyzed by observing direction cosines and velocity profiles of the nodes using
SECM (Spherical Expansion Comparison Methodology). This assessment is important to re-examine simplified
assumptions used in analytical penetration depth equations that were developed without providing adequate insight
into material flow.
Xuan Wang and Shu-jin Fang
One of major challenges for the US wind industry is the lack of consistent fatigue design criteria.
ASCE/AWEA RP2011 recommends several design codes for fatigue analysis of land-based wind turbine support
structures. However, it does not provide discussions on the differences and limitations of these codes. The purpose of
this paper is to present our findings on the application of fatigue design codes including Model Code 2010 (MC10),
Eurocode 2 (EC2), Det Norske Veritas (DNV), and ACI 215. Comparison of the design results from using these
codes/standards are summarized. Due to lack of consistency in the design standards, evaluation results may vary
greatly, which can be confusing and inconclusive at times. In addition, this study shows that there will be significant
differences on fatigue design adequacy depending on which analysis method is used: the average sectional method or
finite element method, the two principal methods used to analyze fatigue. A number of suggestions and critical
comments are also provided in this paper for helping development of more consistent fatigue analysis and design
criteria for wind turbine foundations.
O. S. Ali Ahmed and Damon G. Reigles
This paper discusses the factors that affect the dynamic response of machine foundation systems,
which include (1) the soil dynamic properties, (2) the geometric properties of the foundation, (3) mass of the machine
and foundation, and (4) the amplitude and frequency of the applied dynamic loads. The primary objective in any
machine foundation design is to limit the foundation response below a specific amplitude threshold. A foundation
response exceeding this limit may adversely affect the performance of the machine and damage the machine internals,
resulting in costly repairs and lost revenue. Also, the excessive vibrations may result in structural degradation of the
foundation, additional excitation stresses on the machine, and increase the compressor unbalance loading. This paper
presents dynamic analysis results of a four-cylinder compressor foundation originally designed without consideration
for soil-foundation interaction and suffering from excessive vibration. The foundation block supports a 4-cylinder
Dresser-Rand compressor, suction and discharge bottles, a crank, and a driving motor with a total weight of
approximately 300 kip (1334 kN). A three-dimensional, finite element model representing the soil–foundation system
was developed to determine the dynamic characteristics and assess the foundation response under applied dynamic
loading from the compressor crank. Results showed that the response of the soil-foundation system is governed by the
response of the individual support piers (blocks) and not the global foundation response. This paper also provides a
recommended modification to the foundation geometry to reduce the effect of the individual piers' local modes and
enhance the foundation dynamic performance.
Pericles C. Stivaros and Pablo A. Bruno
This paper presents a case study involving the structural analysis and design of an elevated foundation
plinth to support multiple pieces of rotating machines with different operating weights and speeds. The equipment is
used to operate a high-speed balancing testing facility for turbines and rotors that are located within an adjacent
testing chamber. This project comprised of several layout and design challenges, including vibration and resonance
concerns, effects of multiple operating frequencies, plinth shape, and pile foundation effects. Major concern was to
maintain the high precision and strict tolerance limitations required by the high-speed balancing operations. Elevated
machine foundations integral with other structures possess many natural frequencies, both locally and globally. The
traditional design rules-of-thumb are not adequate for analyzing and designing elevated machine foundations. A
computer-based finite element analysis method is required to identify the multiple natural frequencies of a
complicated foundation structure. The strength design of a machine foundation can become very challenging when
trying to implement code requirements that are mostly applicable to building elements and not to massive concrete
foundations. This study recognizes the need for the development of a design standard to include special design
requirements for mass concrete machine foundations.
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