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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 302 Abstracts search results
September 1, 2020
Ali F. Al-Khafaji, John J. Myers, and Antonio Nanni
Corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC) represents a serious issue in steel-reinforced concrete structures; therefore, finding an alternative to replace steel reinforcement with a non-corrosive material is necessary. One of these alternatives is glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) that arises as not only a feasible solution but also economical. The objective of this study is to assess the durability of GFRP bars in concrete bridges exposed to a real-time weather environment. The first bridge is Southview Bridge (in Missouri) and its GFRP bars have been in service for more than 11 years; the second bridge is Sierrita de la Cruz Creek Bridge (in Texas State) and its GFRP bars have been in service for more than 15 years. To observe any possible mechanical and chemical changes in the GFRP bars and concrete, several tests were conducted on the GFRP bars and surrounding concrete of the extracted cores. Carbonation depth, pH, and chlorides content were performed on the extracted concrete cores to evaluate the GFRP-surrounding environment and see how they influenced certain behaviors of GFRP bars. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe any microstructural degradations within the GFRP bar and on the interfacial transition
zone (ITZ). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was applied to check for any chemical elemental changes. In addition, glass transition temperature (TA) and fiber content tests were carried out to assess the temperature state of the resin and check any loss in fiber content of the bar after these years of service. The results showed that there were no microstructural degradations in both bridges. EDS results were positive for one of the bridges, and they were negative with signs of leaching and alkali-hydrolysis attack on the other. Fiber content results for both bridges were within the permissible limits of ACI 440 standard. Carbonation depth was found only in one of the bridges. In addition, there were no signs of chloride attack in concrete. This study adds new evidence to the validation of the long-term durability of GFRP bars as concrete reinforcement used in field applications.
Morteza Khatibmasjedi, Sivakumar Ramanathan, Prannoy Suraneni, and Antonio Nanni
The use of seawater as mixing water in reinforced concrete (RC) is currently prohibited by most building codes due to potential corrosion of conventional steel reinforcement. The issue of corrosion can be addressed by using noncorrosive reinforcement, such as glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP). However, the long-term strength development of seawater-mixed concrete in different environments is not clear and needs to be addressed. This study reports the results of an investigation on the effect of different environments (curing regimes) on the compressive strength development of seawater-mixed concrete. Fresh properties of seawater-mixed concrete and concrete mixed with potable water were comparable, except for set times, which were accelerated in seawater-mixed concrete. Concrete cylinders were cast and exposed to subtropical environment (outdoor exposure), tidal zone (wet-dry cycles), moist curing (in a fog room), and seawater at 60°C (140°F) (submerged in a tank). Under these conditions, seawater-mixed concrete showed similar or better performance when compared to reference concrete. Specifically, when exposed to seawater at 60°C (140°F), seawater-mixed concrete shows higher compressive strength development than reference concrete, with values at 24 months being 14% higher. To explain strength development of such mixtures, further detailed testing was done. In this curing regime, the seawater-mixed concrete had 33% higher electrical resistivity than the reference concrete. In addition, the reference concrete showed calcium hydroxide leaching, with 30% difference in calcium hydroxide values between bulk and surface. Reference concrete absorbed more fluid and had a lower dry density, presumably due to greater seawater absorption. Seawater-mixed concrete performed better than reference concrete due to lower leaching because of a reduction in ionic gradients between the pore solution and curing solution. These results suggest that seawater-mixed concrete can potentially show better performance when compared to reference concrete for marine and submerged applications.
Song Wang and Mohamed A. ElGawady
In recent decades, concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube (CFFT) columns have gained increasing popularity in bridge construction as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete columns. CFFT columns have excellent structural performance, which is attributed to the superior properties of the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes. Furthermore, using FRP tubes eases the construction of CFFT columns. However, one obstacle hindering the greater acceptance of FRP as a common construction material in civil infrastructure application is the susceptibility of FRP to degradation during long-term exposure to a severe environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the durability of CFFT columns subjected to seawater corrosion, which is the scenario for seashore bridges. CFFT stubs were immersed in simulated seawater with two different elevated temperatures for up to 450 days. Sustained axial loads were also applied to the stubs to simulate the real-life service load. Compression tests and hoop tensile tests were carried out on both pre- and post-conditioned specimens.
Chengjun Yue, Hongfa Yu, Haiyan Ma, Qiquan Mei, Jinhua Zhang, and Yadong Zhang
The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) and sisal fiber coral aggregate seawater concrete (SFCASC) under monotonic load. Based on the theory of rich slurry concrete, the authors prepared a CASC with compressive strength greater than 70 MPa. Uniaxial compression testing was carried out by using an electro-hydraulic servo device. The results showed that the brittleness of CASC was greater than that of ordinary portland concrete (OPC). Sisal fiber can improve its brittleness obviously, while the increase in compressive strength is not significant—SFCASC is only 4.6% higher than CASC. The mechanism of CASC interface enhancement was analyzed from the microscopic perspective. A mathematical model composed of piecewise curvilinear functions was formulated to describe the mechanical properties of CASC. The experimental results validated the model, and showed that the model can better describe the monotonic stress-strain relationship of CASC.
Ahmed T. Omar, Mohamed M. Sadek, and Assem A. A. Hassan
This study aims to evaluate the impact resistance and mechanical properties of a number of developed lightweight self-consolidating concrete (LWSCC) mixtures under cold temperatures. To achieve LWSCC mixtures with minimum possible density, the authors explored different replacement levels of normalweight fine or coarse aggregates by lightweight fine and coarse expanded slate aggregates. The studied parameters included testing temperature (+20°C, 0°C, and –20°C), type of lightweight aggregate (either fine or coarse expanded slate aggregates), binder content (550 and 600 kg/m3 [34.3 and 37.5 lb/ft3]), coarse-to-fine (C/F) aggregate ratio (0.7 and 1.0), and the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers (fibered and nonfibered mixtures). The results indicated that for all tested mixtures, decreasing the temperature of concrete below room temperature significantly improved the mechanical properties and impact resistance. Increasing the percentage of lightweight fine or coarse aggregate in the mixture showed more improvement in the mechanical properties and impact resistance under cold temperatures. However, the failure mode of all tested specimens appeared to be more brittle under subzero temperatures. It was also observed that the inclusion of PVA fibers helped to compensate for the brittleness that resulted from decreasing the temperature, and it further enhanced the impact resistance and mechanical properties under low temperatures.
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