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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 429 Abstracts search results

Document: 

20-528

Date: 

September 1, 2021

Author(s):

M. C. de Moraes, I. S. Buth, C. Angulski da Luz, E. A. Langaro, and M. H. F. Medeiros

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

118

Issue:

5

Abstract:

Recently, alkali-activated cement (AAC) has been studied to partially replace portland cement (PC) to reduce the environmental impact caused by civil construction and the cement industry. However, with regard to durability, few studies have addressed the behavior of AAC. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of AAC made from blast-furnace slag with contents of 4 and 5% sodium hydroxide as an activator (Na2Oeq of 3.72% and 4.42%, respectively) when subjected to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). Length variation tests were carried out on mortar bars immersed in NaOH solution (1 N of NaOH, T = 80°C [176°F]) and on concrete bars (T = 60°C [140°F], RH = 95%); compressive strengths tests and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses were also made. Two types of PC were used as a comparison. The results showed good behavior of the AAC in relation to the AAR, with expansions lower than those established by the norm (34% of the limit) and without the finding of losses of mechanical resistance or structural integrity. The alkaline activator content had a small influence on the behavior of the AACs, in which the lowest amount of NaOH (4%) showed fewer expansions (only 15% of the limit established by the norm). Even for the highest activator content (5%), the results were good and comparable to those of PC with pozzolans, which is recommended for the inhibition of AAR.

DOI:

10.14359/51732937


Document: 

20-268

Date: 

July 1, 2021

Author(s):

Savitha Sagari Srinivasan and Raissa Douglas Ferron

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

118

Issue:

4

Abstract:

The presence of cracks in concrete is a concern because they can reduce the mechanical properties and durability of concrete. The presence of a single crack in concrete and its effect on strength and durability has been studied extensively, but the influence of multiple small cracks or microcracking density as it relates to serviceability is not as well understood. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the relationship between cracking parameters (width, depth, and density) and the strength, stiffness, and durability of concrete. It was found that the density of microcracks is an important factor to take into account for durability, as it can impact serviceability.

DOI:

10.14359/51732792


Document: 

20-210

Date: 

July 1, 2021

Author(s):

Tayseer Z. Batran, Mohamed K. Ismail, and Assem A. A. Hassan

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

118

Issue:

4

Abstract:

This study investigated the structural behavior of lightweight self-consolidating concrete (LWSCC) beams strengthened with engineered cementitious composite (ECC). Four LWSCC beams were strengthened at either the compression or tension zone using two types of ECC developed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers or steel fibers (SFs). Three beams were also cast in full depth with LWSCC, ECC with PVA, and ECC with SFs, for comparison. The performance of all tested beams was evaluated based on loaddeflection response, cracking behavior, failure mode, first crack load, ultimate load, ductility, and energy absorption capacity. The flexural ultimate capacity of the tested beams was also estimated theoretically and compared to the experimental results. The results indicated that adding the ECC layer at the compression zone of the beam helped the LWSCC beams to sustain a higher ultimate loading, accompanied with obvious increases in the ductility and energy absorption capacity. Higher increases in the flexural capacity were exhibited by the beams strengthened with the ECC layer at the tension zone. Placing the ECC layer at the tension zone also contributed to controlling the formation of cracks, ensuring better durability for structural members. Using ECC with SFs yielded higher flexural capacity in beams compared to using ECC with PVA fibers. The study also indicated that the flexural capacity of single-layer and/or hybrid composite beams was conservatively estimated by the ACI ultimate strength design method and the Henager and Doherty model. More improvements in the Henager and Doherty model’s estimates were observed when the tensile stress of fibrous concrete was obtained experimentally.

DOI:

10.14359/51732635


Document: 

20-219

Date: 

July 1, 2021

Author(s):

R. V. M. Toffolo, T. K. Moro, D. H. Santos, L. C. B. Costa, J. C. Mendes, and R. A. F. Peixoto

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

118

Issue:

4

Abstract:

This work evaluates the technical feasibility of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC) pavement with complete replacement of natural aggregates by electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) or basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS). The methodology includes, initially, the processing of the slags, and physical, chemical, and environmental characterization of the natural and slag aggregates. Subsequently, concrete mixtures were designed, and the compaction at optimum moisture was performed. Finally, the behavior of specimens under service and their mechanical performance were evaluated. Results show that both EAFS and BOFS enhance the RCC’s compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The RCC produced with BOFS aggregates presented some expansibility due to its high contents of chemically active finer-than-75-µm materials and higher porosity. The EAFS aggregate was stable in durability analysis. In conclusion, through optimal mixture proportions and using compatible energy compression, it is viable to produce pavements with EAFS steelmaking slag in efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly manners. BOFS also showed promising results but requires further investigation.

DOI:

10.14359/51732791


Document: 

20-172

Date: 

July 1, 2021

Author(s):

S. E. S. Mendes, R. L. N. Oliveira, C. Cremonez, E. Pereira, E. Pereira, P. O. Trentin, and R. A. Medeiros-Junior

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

118

Issue:

4

Abstract:

Blast-furnace slag (BFS) has been increasingly used in cement production and has shown great influence on the electrical resistivity of concrete. The objective of this paper is to compare the theoretical values of electrical resistivity obtained through a mathematical model with experimental values for concrete with BFS. Reference concrete mixtures with ordinary portland cement were also studied. Results indicate higher electrical resistivity and smaller porosity for concretes with CEM III/A. The electrical resistivity of the CEM III/A concrete does not have a well-defined correlation with the water-binder ratio (w/b) or with the compressive strength, unlike CEM I concretes. The correlation between calculated and experimental resistivity requires a correction factor for the CEM III/A concretes. In this study, the correction factor was obtained empirically by reducing the theoretical tortuosity of concrete by 15%. Therefore, the model should be used in cements with BFS with the application of a correction factor.

DOI:

10.14359/51732597


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