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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 405 Abstracts search results
September 1, 2020
Edward G. Moffatt, Michael D. A. Thomas, Andrew Fahim, and Robert D. Moser
This paper presents the durability performance of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) exposed to a marine environment for up to 21 years. Concrete specimens (152 x 152 x 533 mm [6 x 6 x 21 in.]) were cast using a water-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) in the range of 0.09 to 0.19, various types and lengths of steel fibers, and the presence of conventional steel reinforcement bars in select mixtures. Laboratory testing included taking cores from each block and determining the existing chloride profile, compressive strength, electrochemical corrosion monitoring, and microstructural evaluation. Regardless of curing treatment and w/cm, the results revealed that UHPC exhibits significantly enhanced durability performance compared with typical high-performance concrete (HPC) and normal concretes. UHPC prisms exhibited minimal surface damage after being exposed to a harsh marine environment for up to 21 years. Chloride profiles revealed penetration to a depth of approximately 10 mm (0.39 in.) regardless of exposure duration.
Electrochemical corrosion monitoring also showed passivity for reinforcement at a cover depth of 25 mm (1 in.) following 20 years.
Yusheng Zeng, Ser Tong Quek, Aiping Tang, and Xianyu Zhou
Freezing-and-thawing (F-T) resistance is a key parameter in evaluating the durability of concrete. The response of concrete under
F-T environment varies depending on the mixture proportion and materials used. This paper focuses on the F-T behavior and damage resistance of normal-strength (NC), high-strength (HSC), high-performance (HPC), and ultra-high-performance (UHPC) concrete. The mechanisms causing F-T damage are discussed, specifically based on expansion of freezable water under negative temperature and thermal stress arising from differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion of cement and aggregates. To quantify damage, two parameters—namely, mass loss ratio (MLR) and relative dynamic elastic modulus (RDEM)—are compiled for different classes of concrete. Results show that UHPC exhibited much lower increase in MLR and reduction in RDEM than NC and HPC, respectively. The effects of F-T loading on other mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength and stress-strain relationship are also investigated in this paper as possible parameters to help characterize F-T resistance. It is found that F-T will decrease the peak stress but increase the peak strain, and the flexural strength has the fastest loss rate for NC, HPC, HSC and UHPC, respectively. As concrete under F-T environment is often exposed to chloride, the significance of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration and chloride diffusion coefficient (CDC) on HSC and UHPC under NaCl solution are studied. UHPC exhibits better resistance on chloride diffusion after F-T action due to denser internal pore structure. To improve the F-T resistance of concrete, the performance of two supplementary cementitious admixtures, fly ash and silica fume, to partially replace cement are studied. Results show that the appropriate fly ash replacement of 10 to 30% or silica fume replacement of 5 to 10% is found to enhance the F-T resistance. In addition, introducing fibers such as PVA or PP can improve the F-T resistance significantly, although using the wrong proportion may have a negative effect. Using combined admixture of polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene fiber with 1.5% volume in cement-based composites reduces strength degradation caused by F-T loadings.
Song Wang and Mohamed A. ElGawady
In recent decades, concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer tube (CFFT) columns have gained increasing popularity in bridge construction as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete columns. CFFT columns have excellent structural performance, which is attributed to the superior properties of the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes. Furthermore, using FRP tubes eases the construction of CFFT columns. However, one obstacle hindering the greater acceptance of FRP as a common construction material in civil infrastructure application is the susceptibility of FRP to degradation during long-term exposure to a severe environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the durability of CFFT columns subjected to seawater corrosion, which is the scenario for seashore bridges. CFFT stubs were immersed in simulated seawater with two different elevated temperatures for up to 450 days. Sustained axial loads were also applied to the stubs to simulate the real-life service load. Compression tests and hoop tensile tests were carried out on both pre- and post-conditioned specimens.
T. Hemalatha, Arjun S, and B. S. Sindu
This study investigates the feasibility of using induction furnace slag as a substitute for river sand/manufactured sand (M-sand) in the production of concrete. The properties of concrete made with slag fine aggregate is compared with concrete made of river sand and M-sand. Experimental studies have been carried out on concretes made of three types of aggregates and two types of cement (ordinary portland cement [OPC] and portland pozzolana cement [PPC]). Mechanical and durability property tests performed according to standards showed that the characteristics obtained for the concrete made with slag aggregate is comparable with that of the concrete made with river sand and M-sand. This study suggests the 100% replacement of conventional fine aggregate with slag fine aggregate for the production of concrete without compromising the strength and durability characteristics. Further, the study demonstrates that with the suitable measures, the high water absorption of slag aggregate can be compensated.
Ali F. Al-Khafaji, John J. Myers, and Antonio Nanni
Corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC) represents a serious issue in steel-reinforced concrete structures; therefore, finding an alternative to replace steel reinforcement with a non-corrosive material is necessary. One of these alternatives is glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) that arises as not only a feasible solution but also economical. The objective of this study is to assess the durability of GFRP bars in concrete bridges exposed to a real-time weather environment. The first bridge is Southview Bridge (in Missouri) and its GFRP bars have been in service for more than 11 years; the second bridge is Sierrita de la Cruz Creek Bridge (in Texas State) and its GFRP bars have been in service for more than 15 years. To observe any possible mechanical and chemical changes in the GFRP bars and concrete, several tests were conducted on the GFRP bars and surrounding concrete of the extracted cores. Carbonation depth, pH, and chlorides content were performed on the extracted concrete cores to evaluate the GFRP-surrounding environment and see how they influenced certain behaviors of GFRP bars. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe any microstructural degradations within the GFRP bar and on the interfacial transition
zone (ITZ). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was applied to check for any chemical elemental changes. In addition, glass transition temperature (TA) and fiber content tests were carried out to assess the temperature state of the resin and check any loss in fiber content of the bar after these years of service. The results showed that there were no microstructural degradations in both bridges. EDS results were positive for one of the bridges, and they were negative with signs of leaching and alkali-hydrolysis attack on the other. Fiber content results for both bridges were within the permissible limits of ACI 440 standard. Carbonation depth was found only in one of the bridges. In addition, there were no signs of chloride attack in concrete. This study adds new evidence to the validation of the long-term durability of GFRP bars as concrete reinforcement used in field applications.
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