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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 234 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP-345_12

Date: 

February 1, 2021

Author(s):

Xingxing Zou, Chris Moore, and Lesley H. Sneed

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

345

Abstract:

Externally bonded (EB) steel reinforced grout (SRG) composites have the potential to improve the flexural and shear performance of existing concrete and masonry structural members. However, one of the most commonly observed failure modes of SRG-strengthened structures is due to composite debonding, which reduces composite action and limits the SRG contribution to the member load-carrying capacity. This study investigated an endanchorage system for SRG strips bonded to a concrete substrate. The end anchorage was achieved by embedding the ends of the steel cords into the substrate. Nineteen single-lap direct shear specimens with varying composite bonded lengths and anchor binder materials were tested to study the effectiveness of the end-anchorage on the bond performance. For specimens with relatively long bonded length, the end-anchorage slightly improved the performance in terms of peak load achieved before detachment of the bonded region. Anchored specimens with long bonded length showed notable post-detachment behavior. Anchored specimens with epoxy resin achieved load levels significantly higher than the peak load before composite detachment occurred. For specimens with relatively short bonded length, the end-anchorage provided a notable increase in peak load and global slip at composite detachment. A generic load response was proposed for SRG-concrete joints with end anchors.


Document: 

SP-346_03

Date: 

January 1, 2021

Author(s):

Abheetha Peiris and Issam Harik

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

346

Abstract:

Following an over-height truck impact, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) fabric was used to retrofit the exterior girder in a four-span Reinforced Concrete Deck on Girder (RCDG) Bridge on route KY 562 that passes over Interstate 71 in Gallatin County, Kentucky. The impacted span (Span 3) traverses the two northbound lanes of Interstate 71. While the initial retrofit was completed in May 2015, a second impact in September 2018 damaged all four girders in Span 3. The previously retrofitted exterior girder (Girder 4) suffered the brunt of the impact, with all steel rebars in the bottom layer being severed. Damage to Girders 1, 2, and 3 was minor and none of the bars were damaged. A two-stage approach for the containment and repair of the damaged girders following an over-height truck impact was implemented when retrofitting the bridge. The repair and strengthening of all the girders using CFRP fabric was the economical option compared to the alternative option of replacing the RCDG bridge. The initial CFRP retrofit was found to have failed in local debonding around the impact location. The CFRP retrofit material that was not immediately near the impact location was found to be well bonded to the concrete. The removal of this material and subsequent surface preparation for the new retrofit was time consuming and challenging due to traffic constraints. In Girder 4 all but one of the main rebars were replaced by removing the damaged sections and installing straight rebars connected to the existing rebars with couplers. One of the rebars could not be replaced. A heavy CFRP unidirectional fabric, having a capacity of 534 kN (120,000 lbs.) per 305 mm (1 ft.) width of fabric, was selected for the flexural strengthening and deployed to replace the loss in load carrying capacity. A lighter unidirectional CFRP fabric was selected for anchoring and shear strengthening of all the girders, and to serve as containment of crushed concrete in the event of future over-height impacts. The retrofit with spliced steel rebars and CFRP fabric proved to be an economical alternative to bridge replacement.


Document: 

SP-340-01

Date: 

April 1, 2020

Author(s):

John M. Kulicki and Gregg A. Freeby

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

340

Abstract:

Dr. Dennis Mertz was involved with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications [1] for 30 years. Starting with the original development of the specifications and continuing with maintenance and related course development and presentations. His last major contribution to the Specifications was to serve as Principal Investigator for the reorganization of Section 5, Concrete Structures. This presentation summarizes the changes to the structure of the Section including the increased emphasis on design of “B” and “D” regions of flexural members and introduces new and expanded material on beam ledges and inverted T-caps, shear and torsion, anchors, strut and tie modeling and durability. The product of this work was included in the 8th Edition of the Specifications as a complete replacement of Section 5.


Document: 

SP-339_10

Date: 

March 1, 2020

Author(s):

John S. Ma

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

339

Abstract:

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) defines seismic Category 1 structures as the structures (buildings) that should be designed and built to withstand the maximum potential earthquake stresses for the particular region where a nuclear plant is sited. Seismic Category 1 structures have been designed for ground-shaking intensity associated with a safe-shutdown earthquake (SSE) – the intensity of the ground motion that will trigger the process of automatic shutdown of the reactor in operation. The SSE generates floor response spectra at different floor elevations in a building, and these spectra and their associated forces are used for the design of piping and piping anchors and equipment and equipment anchors at their floor locations. The NRC policy requires that the seismic Category 1 structures whose collapse could cause early or/and large release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere to be analyzed/designed for “no collapse” during the ground-shaking intensity of a review-level earthquake (RLE), which is 1.67 times that of an SSE. Most seismic Category 1 concrete structures, such as containment and shield buildings (curved cylindrical wall; see Figs. 1 and 2 in the next section) and containment internal structures (straight wall; see Fig. 1), use walls to resist earthquakes. This paper presents guidelines for the performance-based seismic design for these wall-typed structures that could meet the NRC policy. The method consists of (1) proportioning wall thickness based on shear stress of 6√fc’ (0.5√fc’ megapascals (MPa)) generated by SSE ground motions, (2) limiting vertical compressive stress in walls to less than 0.35 fc’, (3) providing minimum percentage of reinforcement of 1.0 percent to prevent steel reinforcing bar fracture, (4) subjecting the building design to nonlinear dynamic response analyses under RLE ground motions, (5) identifying any members and their connections in the building that have failed or collapsed during the RLE ground motions, (6) increasing reinforcement or wall thickness, or both, to provide additional strength or/and ductility for the failed or collapsed members and their connections, and (7) resubjecting the revised building design to the nonlinear dynamic response analyses as stated in step (4) until no collapse of the building and its members and their connections. This performance-based seismic design method is a direct, transparent, and scientific answer to whether these important seismic Category 1 structures meet the NRC’s policy that they will not collapse during the RLE ground motions. Examples of using the nonlinear dynamic response analyses are cited and described. Guidelines for the performance-based seismic design of seismic Category 1 concrete Structures are listed at the end of this paper.


Document: 

SP-337_01

Date: 

January 23, 2020

Author(s):

Widianto; Jameel Khalifa; Erik Åldstedt; Kåre O. Hæreid; Kjell Tore Fosså

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

337

Abstract:

An offshore concrete Gravity-Based-Structure (GBS) is a massive concrete structure placed on the seafloor and held in place strictly by its own weight, without need for anchors. This paper focuses on concrete GBSs used as the base of integrated oil drilling and production platforms. The summary of key distinct structural features of several major GBSs, since the first Ekofisk GBS (installed in the North Sea, offshore Norway, in 1973) until the latest Hebron GBS (installed in the Grand Banks, Canada, in 2017), is presented. This paper also discusses several unique loads that GBSs have to resist. An overview of structural analysis and design methodology is described in detail. Key considerations for preliminary sizing of GBS structural components are presented. Typical construction phases, methods, and the importance of constructability are explained. Finally, potential future research topics that would result in a more cost-effective offshore concrete GBS are discussed.


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