International Concrete Abstracts Portal

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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-10 of 11 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP74-10

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

I. Leon Glassgold

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

The introduction describes the types of materials used in refractory linings, their constituent ingredients and general properties. A brief history is presented with the problems and procedures attendant to the installation and use of various refractory materials. This is followed by an analysis of failure mechanisms with an overview of repair methods, including a description of available hot and cold techniques for the various repair alternatives. The need for careful surface preparation is emphasized, while anchoring and bonding devices are described. Choosing the appropriate repair material is also highlighted. Miscellaneous details covering joints, curing, drying and heatup and their importance in achieving a successful repair are discussed. A detailed description of proper repair procedures, including shotcreting, casting and guncasting, among others, is presented with particular emphasis being placed on the methods available for both plastic and castable requirements. Qua1ity Contro1 of the entire repair procedure and the methods of testing in use at present are assessed.

10.14359/17463


Document: 

SP74-09

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

Robert E. Fisher

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Early failures of monolithics are always a disheartening experience to the supplier, but they often are useful learning experiences as well. A number of field problems are described. These problems were solved by such adjustments as changes in material selection, improvements in existing materials and/or the development of new materials, changes in design, improvements in installation technique and modifications to the bake out procedure.

10.14359/6398


Document: 

SP74-08

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

M.S. Crowley

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Refining and petrochemical operations, such as fluid catalytic cracking units, naphtha reformers, incinerators, and furnaces subject refractory linings to a variety of aggressive actions, such as erosion, spalling, slagging, and chemical attack. A number of different types of monolithic refractory material are used to resist these actions. The types of refractory failure commonly experienced in refineries and petrochemical plants are discussed and methods of repairing or replacing the deteriorated areas are outlined. The effect of placement techniques, curing conditions, and start up procedures on the serviceability of repaired sections is also discussed.

10.14359/6397


Document: 

SP74-07

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

Richard G. LaBar

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of performance criteria for refractory concretes, or castables, in the melting, holding, and transfer of aluminum alloys in ingot plants. Refractory concretes in these applications have three mechanisms of failure which are attributed to anomalies in refractory installation, thermomechanical stability and chemical stability. Chemical stability indicates the refractory concrete's resistance to corrosive effects of chlorine gas, molten metal, and alkali vapors.

10.14359/6396


Document: 

SP74-06

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

Wesley C. Lueking

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Plastic refractories fail from anyone of five general causes. One of these is improper installation. A case history is presented of a large monolithic job where several fundamentals of installation were not followed and subsequent replacement was required.

10.14359/6395


Document: 

SP74-05

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

Richard Shultz

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Steps taken to determine the cause of failure of a shotcreted lining in a Sinter Plant Mist Separator included testing and characterization of several refractory concretes and a detailed analysis of the most likely causes for failure. Test methods and results, environmental characterization and a step by step analysis of possible causes for failure are described. Completion of the study led to elimination of the present stack material combination with replacement by a 316 stainless steel stack.

10.14359/6394


Document: 

SP74-04

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

Timothy J. Fowler

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

American Concrete Institute Committee 547 has introduced the concept of rational design based on a comprehensive analysis of the stress and strain fields. The approach utilizes recently developed thermal and stress analysis techniques to predict the service performance and life of a refractory. With this knowledge, a more optimum design can be developed, and design for a specific life is feasible. Current design practice is often based on relative material properties, and trial and error design techniques. While satisfactory for many situations, this approach breaks down when a background of experience is not available. The rational design approach provides insight into the behavior of the refractory and can be applied to the overall refractory system, or to small isolated components. The analytical techniques are relatively new and the application to refractory is still in its infancy. Successful use of rational design techniques will result in reduced initial cost, savings of downtime, and improved performance. Considerable research and development work is required to refine, simplify, and apply this new design approach, and to develop the required engineering data.

10.14359/6393


Document: 

SP74-03

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

William A. Ellingson

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Refractory concrete linings are essential to protect steel pressure boundaries from high-temperature aggressive erosive/corrosive environments in many energy-intensive commercial processes such as blast furnaces and petrochemical plants, and in new industries such as synthetic fuel production. Advanced nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing the integrity of refractory linings. Radiographic techniques, thermography, acoustic-emission detection, and optical laser interferometry have been shown to yield information on the structural status of refractory concrete. Methods using 60Co radiation sources can yield measurements of refractory wear rate and images of cracks and/or voids in pre- and post-fired refractory linings up to 60 cm thick. Thermographic (infrared) images serve as a qualitative indicator of refractory spalling, although quantitative measurements are difficult to obtain from surface-temperature mapping. Acoustic emission has been shown to be a qualitative indicator of thermomechanical degradation of thick refractory panels during initial heating and cooling. Laser interferometry methods have been shown to be capable of completely mapping refractory lining thicknesses. This paper presents recent results obtained from laboratory and field applications of these nondestructive evaluation methods in petrochemical, steel, and coal-conversion plants.

10.14359/6392


Document: 

SP74-02

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

S.A. Bortz, R.F. Firestone, and M.J. Greaves

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Refractory is a construction material which is used in hot, hostile environments where plain concrete fails. Although concrete practice can be used as a guide, there are many special factors which must be taken into account to develop an optimum design. A thorough understanding of these factors is essential for successful refractory castable application.

10.14359/6391


Document: 

SP74-01

Date: 

August 1, 1982

Author(s):

Wate T. Bakker

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

74

Abstract:

Recent research on refractory concretes for use in energy conversion applications has provided data, useful in other areas. It is shown that refractory concretes, especially those containing a calcined fireclay aggregate, are very tolerant to environments, generally considered corrosive, such as gases containing CO, CO2, H2, H2S and steam at high pressures. Even when the hydrated calcium aluminates are decomposed and some of the CaO is leached out, are fractory with acceptable physical properties remains. In many cases the strength of the material increases during service. Improved design methods for refractory concrete were also developed. A computer program to calculate heat losses from refractory concrete lined pressure vessels was developed and experimentally verified. This model takes into account the effect of cracks, anchor spacing and different gases in the pores of the concrete. The thermo mechanical behavior of refractory concrete was studied experimentally and modeled by computer. Design and materials selection criteria were developed. To minimize cracking, shrinkage and creep of the concrete should be low, preferably less than 0.1%. Anchor spacing should be wide and the anchors coated with a compliant or combustible material to avoid stress concentrations. Bond barriers between the vessel shell and the refractory and between various refractory layers are also beneficial. Long holding periods during initial heat up of the lining were found superfluous.

10.14359/6390


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