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Showing 1-10 of 19 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP315

Date: 

September 11, 2017

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

Editors: Carlos E. Ospina, Denis Mitchell and Aurelio Muttoni

fib Bulletin 81 reports the latest information available to researchers and practitioners on the analysis, design and experimental evidence of punching shear of structural concrete slabs. It follows previous efforts by the International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) and its predecessor the Euro-International Committee for Concrete (CEB), through CEB Bulletin 168, Punching Shear in Reinforced Concrete (1985) and fib Bulletin 12, Punching of structural concrete slabs (2001), and an international symposium sponsored by the punching shear subcommittee of ACI Committee 445 (Shear and Torsion) and held in Kansas City, Mo., USA, in 2005.

This bulletin contains 18 papers that were presented in three sessions as part of an international symposium held in Philadelphia, Pa., USA, on October 25, 2016. The symposium was co-organized by the punching shear sub-committee of ACI 445 and by fib Working Party 2.2.3 (Punching and Shear in Slabs) with the objectives of not only disseminating information on this important design subject but also promoting harmonization among the various design theories and treatment of key aspects of punching shear design. The papers are organized in the same order they were presented in the symposium. The symposium honored Professor Emeritus Neil M. Hawkins (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA), whose contributions through the years in the field of punching shear of structural concrete slabs have been paramount.

The papers cover key aspects related to punching shear of structural concrete slabs under different loading conditions, the study of size effect on punching capacity of slabs, the effect of slab reinforcement ratio on the response and failure mode of slabs, without and with shear reinforcement, and its implications for the design and formulation in codes of practice, an examination of different analytical tools to predict the punching shear response of slabs, the study of the post-punching response of concrete slabs, the evaluation of design provisions in modern codes based on recent experimental evidence and new punching shear theories, and an overview of the combined efforts undertaken jointly by ACI 445 and fib WP 2.2.3 to generate test result databanks for the evaluation and calibration of punching shear design recommendations in North American and international codes of practice. Sincere acknowledgments are extended to all authors, speakers, reviewers, as well as to fib and ACI staff for making the symposium a success and for their efforts to produce this long-awaited bulletin. Special thanks are due to Laura Vidale for preparing the bulletin for publication.

Note: The individual papers are also available. Please click on the following link to view the papers available, or call 248.848.3800 to order. SP-315


Document: 

SP-315_18

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Thai X. Dam, James K. Wight, Gustavo J. Parra-Montesinos, Alex DaCosta

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

Seventeen large-scale interior reinforced concrete slab-column connections were tested to study the effect of different shear stud layouts and the percentage of slab flexural reinforcement. They were divided into two series M (twelve specimens) and S (five specimens) based on their dimensions. Each specimen in Series M had a 6 ft by 6 ft (1830 mm by 1830 mm) and 8 in. (200 mm) thick slab and a 6 in. by 6 in. (150 mm by 150 mm) column cross-section, while each specimen in Series S had a 10 ft by 10 ft (3050 mm by 3050 mm) and 10 in. (250 mm) thick slab and a 12 in. by 12 in. (300 mm by 300 mm) column cross-section. The percentage of slab flexural tension reinforcement was approximately either 0.8% or 1.2%, and shear studs were arranged in either an orthogonal or radial layout. Test results showed that shear strength equations in the ACI Building Code (ACI 318, 2014) overestimated the strength of some test specimens. Also, specimens with a radial layout of shear studs typically had higher strength and more ductile behavior than specimens with an orthogonal stud layout. Recommendations to improve the design of flat plate systems are presented.


Document: 

SP-315_17

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Rupert Walkner, Mathias Spiegl, Jürgen Feix

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

The assessment of existing flat slabs and bridges often shows insufficient punching shear resistance in the area of the support regions. The reasons for this are modified requirements of use or more restrictive design rules. There are many different methods to increase the punching shear resistance, but most of them are expensive and require access to the upper surface of the structure. Thus the construction work is only possible under restricted operation. In addition, difficult detail issues arise with regard to the rearrangement of the structure sealing. This paper deals with a new strengthening system using concrete screws, which are installed vertically into pre-drilled holes from the soffit of the slab. The results of two test series with a total of nine specimens are presented in this paper. It turns out that this strengthening method leads to a significant increase in the shear punching capacity and to a less brittle failure mode.


Document: 

SP-315_16

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Dritan Topuzi, Maria Anna Polak, Sriram Narasimhan

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

The focus of this research is on developing new punching shear retrofit techniques for slab-column connections to improve the seismic response of flat-plate systems. Previous tests have shown the effectiveness of using shear reinforcement to enhance the shear strength and ductility of individual slab-column connections. However, the advantage of ductility in reducing the earthquake impact on structures is accompanied by an increase in the base shear, due to increased stiffness. Herein, a new type of punching shear retrofit element, shear bolts with flexible washers, is introduced. The flexible washers allow for shear crack opening during the lateral displacements, while at the same time providing control of the crack width by controlling the washer thickness and/or stiffness. The results show that this technique increases the ductility of the connections, without a commensurate increase in stiffness. The effect of this type of shear reinforcement on the response of an assembled structure is investigated through dynamic analysis, to check how energy dissipation within individual connections affects the overall energy dissipation of a flat-plate system. The presented system was designed for slab retrofit. However, it can be anticipated that similar concepts could be used in the construction of new slabs in seismic zones.


Document: 

SP-315_15

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Luis F. S. Soares, Robert L. Vollum

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

This paper examines the influence of flexural continuity on punching resistance at edge columns of braced flat slabs under gravity loading, making use of experimental data, nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) and the Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT) as presented in the fib Model Code 2010 (MC2010). According to the CSCT, punching resistance reduces with increasing rotation y of the slab relative to its support area due to loss of aggregate interlock in the critical shear crack. NLFEA shows that as loads are increased to failure, moment redistribution from edge column supports to the span causes the loading eccentricity at edge columns to reduce below its initial elastic value. The resulting rotation y and peak shear stress are less than they are in comparable isolated test specimens with fixed loading eccentricity. Consequently, the CSCT predicts punching resistance at edge columns of flat slabs to be significantly influenced by flexural continuity, which is unaccounted for in the design methods of ACI 318 and EC2. Both NLFEA and the CSCT suggest that providing surplus flexural reinforcement in the span can be more effective at increasing punching resistance at edge columns than the common UK practice of providing surplus hogging flexural reinforcement.


Document: 

SP-315_14

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Juan Sagaseta, Nsikak Ulaeto, Justin Russell

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

Current building regulations for design against progressive collapse normally use prescriptive rules and risk-based qualitative scales, which are insufficient to cover current design needs. Structural robustness of concrete flat slab structures is examined using different theoretical models to capture the dynamic behavior under accidental events. In such extreme events, the large dynamic reactions at the connections could potentially lead to punching and progressive collapse. Punching formulae based on load-deformation response relationships such as the Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT) are particularly useful in dynamic situations. The Ductility-Centred Robustness Assessment developed at Imperial College London is also used in this paper to derive simple design formulae to assess punching of adjacent columns in the sudden column removal scenario, which is commonly adopted in practice. The approach can be extended to assess flat slab systems when considering membrane action in the slab and post-punching behavior in the connections. Analytical models for tensile membrane are used in combination with the CSCT to demonstrate that the tying forces required in codes of practice cannot be achieved without prior punching of the connections. It is also shown that numerical modelling of post-punching is a promising tool to review detailing provisions for integrity reinforcement.


Document: 

SP-315_13

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

António Ramos, Rui Marreiros, André Almeida, Brisid Isufi, Micael Inácio

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

Flat slab structures are a very common structural solution nowadays, due to their architectural and economic advantages. However, flat slab-column connections may be vulnerable to punching failure, especially in the event of an earthquake, with potentially high human and economic losses. This type of structural solution is adequately covered by design codes and recommendations in North America, due to the large amount of experimental research that has been carried out. In Europe, the situation is different: specific guidance to flat slab design under earthquake action is missing from most European codes. The ACI 318-14 prescriptive approach to the gravity shear ratio-drift ratio relationship shows good agreement with experimental results. Following a similar approach and, based on a databank containing cyclic horizontally loaded tests of slab-column connections found in the literature, proposals are made that are applicable to Eurocode 2 and the fib Model Code 2010.


Document: 

SP-315_12

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Aurelio Muttoni, Miguel Fernández Ruiz

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

The Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT) is a consistent approach used for shear design of one- and two-way slabs failing in shear and punching shear respectively. The theory is based on a mechanical model that allows the amount of shear force that can be carried by cracked concrete to be determined, accounting for the opening and roughness of a critical shear crack leading to failure. The theory was first developed for punching design of slab-column connections without shear reinforcement. Its principles were later extended to other cases, such as slabs with shear reinforcement, fibre-reinforced concrete or slabs strengthened with CFRP strips and one-way slabs without shear reinforcement. The generality, accuracy and ease-of-use of this theory led to its implementation in design codes (such as the fib Model Code 2010 or the Swiss Code for concrete structures). The design expressions of the CSCT consist of a failure criterion and a load-deformation relationship, whose intersection defines the load and the deformation capacity at punching failure. They are clear and physically understandable, and can be written in a compact manner for the design of new structures. With respect to the assessment of the maximum punching capacity, the conventional design expressions of the CSCT can also be used, although they required being solved iteratively. In order to enhance the usability of the design equations of the CSCT, particularly for the punching assessment of existing structures, this paper presents closed-form design expressions developed within the framework of the CSCT. These expressions allow for direct design and assessment of the failure load. The closed-form expressions keep the generality and advantages of the CSCT approach, but they allow for faster and more convenient use in practice. In this paper, the derivation of these expressions on the basis of the CSCT principles is presented, as well as its benefits and comparison to experimental results and the original design formulation.


Document: 

SP-315_11

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Denis Mitchell, William D. Cook

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

Factors influencing the punching shear resistance of two-way slabs are presented. Factors discussed include: construction errors; effects during construction; earthquake effects; deterioration of parking garage slabs; and design with older, deficient codes of practice. Experiments on the size effect are discussed and the provisions of the CSA Standard for the Design of Concrete Structures for the treatment of the size effect are presented. The provisions of the CSA Standard requiring structural integrity reinforcement in order to provide a secondary defense mechanism capable of preventing progressive collapse are explained. The results from experimental and analytical studies on the post-punching response of two-way slabs are described. The effects of deterioration of parking garage slabs subjected to chloride contamination and the provisions of the CSA Standard on Parking Structures to improve durability are discussed. The effects of delamination due to corrosion of the reinforcement in older parking structures are discussed and experimental studies on the effects of simulated delamination are presented. The progressive collapse in 2008 of an older parking structure in St-Laurent, Quebec, is described to illustrate some key factors influencing such a collapse.


Document: 

SP-315_10

Date: 

April 1, 2017

Author(s):

Eva O. L. Lantsoght, Cor van der Veen, Ane de Boer, Scott D.B. Alexander

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

315

Abstract:

The shear capacity of slabs under concentrated loads is particularly of interest for bridge decks under concentrated live loads. Often, one-way shear will be analyzed by considering the slab as a wide beam (without taking advantage of the transverse load redistribution capacity of the slab) and two-way shear by considering the punching area around the load. Since experiments have shown that the failure mode of slabs under concentrated loads is a combination of one-way and two-way shear as well as two-way flexure, a method was sought that bridges the gap between the traditional one-way and two-way shear approaches. The proposed method is a plasticity-based method. This method is based on the Strip Model for concentric punching shear and takes the effects of the geometry into account for describing the ultimate capacity of a slab under a concentrated load. The model consists of “strips” that work with arching action (one-way shear) and slab “quadrants” that work in two-way shear. As such, the resulting Extended Strip Model is suitable for the design and assessment of elements that are in the transition zone between one-way and two-way shear.


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