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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 13 Abstracts search results
April 1, 1998
Lawrence G. Griffis and Javier F. Horvilleur
Diagonal Mar Centro Comercial is a 350,000 square meter (3.75 million square foot) mixed use commercial development in Barcelona, Spain. It is located at the terminus of the premier boulevard in Barcelona, avenida Diagonal and will be known as Diagonal Mar - the avenue by the sea. The project is located only two hundred meters from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and approximately ten kilometers east of the Olympic Village - home to the athletes in the 1992 Olympic Games. A commercial venture of Diagonal Mar S.A., the first phase consists of a 165,000 square meter (1.75 million square feet) retail mall and hypermarket (the largest in Spain) and six levels of underground parking for 5,100 automobiles in 185,000 square meters (2.0 million square feet) of space. Construction cost for Phase I is estimated to be $180,000,000 US dollars. Residential housing and office buildings are planned for later phases of the project. The site is a very large triangular plot bounded by the extension of avenida Diagonal on the northwest, avenida Josep Pla on the west and avenida Taulat on the south. The sides of the triangle are approximately 333 meters (1,072 feet) along avenida Diagonal, 285 meters (935 feet) along avenida Taulat and 236 meters (774 feet) along avenida Joseph Pla. The 24 meter (79 feet) deep excavation required for the underground parking, located 18 meters (59 feet) below the shallow water table, will create the largest basement substructure in the world and will remove more than 1 .O million cubic meters (1 .3 million cubic yards). The sheer size of the project and its location so close to the sea posed a whole host of enormous engineering challenges for the design and construction planning team as follows: (1) Excavation retention method; (2) Foundation system selection and design; (3) Excavation/substructure construction method and sequence, (4) Substructure system selection and design.
Bingnian Gong, Bahram M. Shahrooz and Arnold J. Gillum
Adequate performance of coupled walls depends on sufficient stiffness, strength, and energy dissipation of coupling beams. To meet these goals, reinforced concrete coupling beams are often deep On the other hand, shallower steel beams can be used instead, and steel/composite coupling beams may be designed as shear-yielding members which have a more desirable energy dissipation characteristics. Such an option is not feasible for reinforced concrete beams. Well-established guidelines for links in eccentrically braced frames can be extrapolated to steel coupling beams. However, these provisions ignore the effects of concrete encasement which often surround the steel coupling beam. The reported research was conducted in an effort to till this void. Four one-third scale subassemblages of a wall segment and a coupling beam were extracted from a prototype structure, and were tested. The main test variables were the presence or lack of concrete encasement, and the number of web stiffeners. The encasement around the steel coupling beam increased the beam stiffness by 25%, and the shear strength by 18%. The additional stiffness enhances the level of coupling action which could lead into significantly larger wall axial loads, and would increase the demands on the foundation system. The increased stiffness needs to be incorporated in design. Although all the specimens could develop and exceed the expected capacities, the specimens failed due to less than desirable performance of the connection. Participation of the connection region towards energy dissipation became more substantial for the encased specimens, which is not desirable in view of post-earthquake repair. Connection design has to account for the increased capacity due to encasement, and details need to be improved to delay connection failure until plastic hinges in the coupling beam are fully mobilized. The encased specimens without any stiffeners performed as well as the specimens with stiffeners equal to or less than those required for steel link beams. No significant differences between the strength and stiffness characteristics of the encased specimens could be found. The experimental data suggest that nominal encasement is an effective means for preventing web buckling, and stiffeners are not needed. Current design codes need to be reevaluated for the cases where the steel coupling beam is encased.
Subhash C. Goel
A five-year research program on Composite and Hybrid Structures as Phase 5 of the U.S.-Japan cooperative Earthquake Research Program was recommended to be initiated in 1993 in both countries. Presented in this paper is a summary of the research program which is based on a number of technical meetings of the U.S. and Japan Planning Groups and a Joint Planning Workshop. Because of diverse and broad scope of the subject area, the research program is organized into the following four groups: New Materials, Elements and Systems; Concrete Filled Tube Column Systems; Reinforced Concrete (RC) and Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) Column Systems; and RC/SRC Wall Systems. A theme structure with well selected layout, geometry and design loads for the research is also presented, which provides a common focus for various systems to be studied, and also a common prototype structure from which the components and sub-assemblages are drawn.
The earthquake that shook southern Hyogo Prefecture in Japan on January 17, 1995 (also known as the Kobe earthquake) measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale. This event was the most devastating earthquake to strike Japan since the Kanto earthquake of 1923. This paper focuses on the performance of a particular composite system, referred to as Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC). This type of structural system comprises approximately 10 percent of all square meters of construction in Japan. A major factor contributing to the collapse of many SRC buildings, known to Japanese researchers prior to the earthquake, could be said to be the lack of adequate confining steel and cross ties, especially for large columns. Additionally, the use of 90 degree hooks, even with close tie spacing, was shown to be undesirable.
Ivan M. Viest
Following the symposium on Hybrid and Composite Construction and after receiving the papers for the proceeding volume, the committee decided that in addition to the presented papers, it will add considerably to the value of the volume, if there was an opening paper to present an overview as well as the future predictions of the whole system. Mr. Viest, known in this field for a long time, was invited to do this difficult task. In his presentation, Mr. Viest reviews the past and the present, and concludes with some future directions, which hybrid and composite construction might take.
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