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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 33 Abstracts search results
May 1, 1995
A. E. Long, A. A. Sha'at, and P. A. M. Basheer
The durability of reinforced concrete structures can be improved by resorting to methods which insure a better resistance of concrete to various aggressive environments. Some commonly used methods include subjecting concrete to a better curing practice, the use of modified concretes, and the application of surface treatments on concrete surfaces. In addition to these, efforts have been made in the recent past to develop new techniques by which the water- cement ratio in the near surface region can be lowered and a dense matrix achieved. One way of achieving this is to use a controlled permeability formwork system (CPF), in which the surplus mixing water and entrapped air are removed from the fresh concrete via a fiber liner. This produces a surface layer of concrete with a very low permeability which is likely to be highly resistant to various forms of environmental attack. Relatively little information is available at present on the efficiency of CPF in improving the protection of the concrete against various mechanisms of deterioration and on how it compares with other techniques, such as the application of better curing practices. Therefore, an experimental investigation was carried out with three water-cement ratios, five different curing regimes (air curing, wet hessian curing, and the use of three different curing compounds), and the application of a CPF liner system. Measurements of gas permeability, sorptivity, chloride diffusivity, surface tensile strength, freezing and thawing resistance, and carbonation resistance have indicated that the use of CPF can enhance the durability of concrete and that the extent of this improvement is significantly more than that obtained for the various curing regimes. This paper details the experimental program and presents results which are used to evaluate critically the use of CPF for normal concrete.
The resistance of rice hull ash (RHA) concrete to freezing and thawing in saline environment was studied in the laboratory, for non-air- entrained high performance and normal concrete. The Swedish standard test for concrete resistance to freezing and thawing in saline environment was used. Although the number of tests was limited, the results were very promising for the use of RHA in non-air-entrained normal or high performance concrete. The laboratory salt scaling for concrete with 15 to 30 percent replacement of portland cement with RHA indicated that RHA concrete without air entrainment would be fairly resistant to freezing and thawing in most applications except for in very severe climates. No indications on an accelerated scaling rate over time was observed for RHA concrete, as opposed to the accelerated scaling rate found for a non-air-entrained high performance silica fume concrete tested.
Y. Fu, J. Ding, and J. J. Beaudoin
Mechanisms of stratlingite (C 2ASH 8) formation in high-alumina cement (HAC)-siliceous material systems were investigated. Different siliceous materials (silica fume, fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag) and chemical admixtures (sodium silicate, sodium sulfate) were employed. Reactions between CAH 10 or C 2AH 8 and dissolved silica occur. Acceleration of silica dissolution by addition of chemical admixtures promotes the formation of stratlingite. The pH value of the HAC-siliceous materials system was also studied. The intrinsic relationship between the pH value and stratlingite formation is discussed in this paper. Mechanisms of stratlingite formation in preference to hydrogarnet (C 3AH 6) in HAC products are postulated. A method for prevention of strength reduction of HAC products due to the conversion of thermodynamically unstable hexagonal calcium aluminates to cubic hydrogarnet is described.
Electrochemical chloride removal was applied to a concrete test area of about 36 m 2 in a reinforced concrete hall which had been used for more than 10 years as a depot for deicing salt, in an attempt to extract the chloride that had penetrated into it. Since the salt had been stored loosely and the interior of the hall was frequently exposed to outside air, the concrete was heavily contaminated by chloride (up to about 15 percent Cl - in cement). Chloride removal was performed with an average current density of 1 A/m 2 for a period of 132 days. The studies were aimed at determining the changes in total chloride content and the Cl - and OH - concentrations of the pore solution at varying concrete depths. It was shown that the efficiency of chloride removal decreased in the concrete cover with increasing depth and that it was least efficient near the reinforcement. The factor that was identified as being responsible for this was the change in OH - concentration of the pore solution that had been caused by reactions at the electrodes. The OH - concentration of the pore solution decreased in the area close to the surface during treatment, while it rose dramatically around the reinforcement (up to approximately 2.5 mol OH -/L). This resulted in an increase of the Chloride Transference Number and, thus, the efficiency of chloride removal close to the concrete surface, as well as a drastic decrease close to the reinforcement. Hence, a reduction of the Cl - to "harmless" levels was not possible in this particular case. However, practice has shown that in many cases such a reduction can be achieved as chloride contamination is normally much less severe; thus, most of the chloride can be extracted from the reinforcement area before the rising Cl -concentration of the pore solution has diminished the efficiency of chloride removal. If, however, chloride has penetrated beyond the reinforcement, it can be removed to a limited extent only.
Y. Tsukinaga, M. Shoya, R. Sugawara, and H. Nonome
In this study, the use of a new permeable sheet was evaluated in making the surface layer of concrete denser, thus improving the performance and durability of the concrete. The application of permeable sheet was confirmed effective in the lowering of water-cement ratio corresponding to the decrease of pore volume; this resulted in the increase of pull-off of tensile strength, rebound number, pulse velocity, and pin penetration resistance in the surface layer. It was also observed that the air bubbles were likely to move from the internal portion to the surface with the expelled flow of water, remarkably reducing bugholes on the concrete surface. The use of new type of permeable sheet improved resistance to freezing and thawing cycling and reduced the depth of carbonation and the ingress of chloride ions. Furthermore, the water tightness was also improved.
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