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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 7 Abstracts search results
June 1, 1994
W. E. Brewer
Paper covers various aspects of controlled low-strength material (CLSM) and discusses CLSM's durability factors. It reviews CLSM's early history, listing possible uses and applications. Quality assurance and quality control compaisons are made between conventional portland cement concrete and CLSM. CLSM durability factors are referenced for each possible use and application, and tests are listed for CLSM's durability and methods to insure this durability.
A. K. Howard
Soil-cement pipe embedment has been used by the Bureau of Reclamation for about 25 years. The ingredients of the soil-cement can vary, but typically it is a combination of soil, portland cement, and water. In most cases, the pipe trench is trimmed so that a semicircular excavation is created that is only slightly larger than the pipe diameter. The soil-cement is used to fill the gap between the pipe and the in situ soil. Thus, the native trench material must be able to provide adequate supporting strength to the pipe. The consistency of the soil-cement can vary from a fluid (slurry) to a mixture of about 25-cm (10-in.) slump, depending on the placement requirements. The consistency, ingredients, and placement dimensions can all vary as long as two basic requirements are met: 1) The material must be placed so that there is complete contact between the pipe and the in situ soil; and 2) The unconfined compressive strength of the hardened material is at least 700 kPa (100 lb/in. 2) at 7 days. The most suitable soil to use is a silty sand with the fines content not exceeding about 30 percent. This allows native soils from the trench excavation or from nearby the construction site to be used. Fly ash has been used in place of cement, and bentonite has been added to improve pumping characteristics. The versatility and consistent mixing and placement characteristics of soil-cement slurry have made it a popular choice for contractors.
Editor: Wayne S. Adaska / Sponsored by: ACI Committee 229 and ACI Committee 232 and ACI Committee E702
Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM) is a self-compacted cementitious material used primarily as a substitute for compacted backfill. The material is known by many names including flowable fill, controlled density fill, unshrinkable fill and soil-cement slurry. The American Concrete Institute defines CLSM as a material with a maximum unconfined compressive strength of 1200 psi. For most applications, however, the compressive strength of CLSM does not exceed about 300 psi. This makes it possible for the material to be removed should future excavation be necessary.
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T. R. Naik and B. W. Ramme
Presents results of research performed to identify optimum mix proportions for production of controlled low-strength materials (CLSM) with high fly ash content. CLSM is defined by ACI Committee 229 as a cementitious material that is in a flowable state at the time of placement, with a specified compressive strength of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa or 172,800 psf) or less at 28 days. The fly ash used in this study met the requirements of ASTM C 618 for Class F material. Tests were carried out on concrete designed for 500 to 1500 psi compressive strength at 28 days, with fly ash contents of approximately 500 lb/yd 3. Slump was held at 8 ¦1 in. for all mixes produced. Compressive strengths at 28 days were found to range from 290 to 1640 psi. Construction experience and other planned applications are also discussed. 141-494
M. E. Ayers, S. Z. Wong, and W. Zaman
The effect of mix proportions on the compressive strength of flowable fill is investigated in this study. Flowable fill, composed of Type I cement, Class C fly ash, sand, and water, meets the requirements of ACI Committee 229 as a controlled low-strength material (CLSM) if the 28-day compressive strength is 1200 psi (8.3 MPa) or less. Extensive laboratory tests were conducted to determine the effects on the engineering properties of varying the water/cement plus fly ash, sand/cement plus fly ash, and fly ash/cement ratios. A wide range of ratios was evaluated to provide a cost-effective mix design for various material costs. Compressive strengths were determined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days, providing an indication of the rate of strength development and ultimate compressive strength.
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