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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 14 Abstracts search results
September 1, 1993
M. R. Hansen, M. L. Leming, P. Zia, and S. Ahmad
Three types of High Performance Concrete (HPC) for highway applications were investigated: Very Early Strength (VES), High Early Strength (HES) and Very High Strength (VHS). Two of the objectives of the research were to measure the chloride permeability of these concretes and explore an alternate method using AC impedance. Many of the concretes had coulomb values of 4000 and higher, placing them in the "high permeability" category as specified by AASHTO T 277 - Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT). Coulomb values were also found to decrease with concrete age and with increased silica fume content. Coulomb values were found not to vary significantly with dosage of calcium nitrite used as accelerator, up to 6 gal/yd 3 (29.7 l/m 3). The AC impedance test results (ohms) were found to correlate well with the RCPT results (coulombs) and were sufficiently accurate to place the concretes in the proper chloride permeability category. The advantages of the AC impedance test are that it is faster and less expensive than the RCPT and it avoids the potential heating problem sometimes encountered in the RCPT. AC impedance was found to increase with concrete age and with increased silica fume content and decrease with increased calcium nitrite dosage.
G. J. B. Ithurralde and J. L. Costaz
To insure the tightness function of nuclear reactor containments, a special high-performance concrete (HPC) having a high silica fume content (30 kg/m 3) and a low cement content (270 kg/m 3) has been developed. The aim of this concrete formulation, which has a 28-day compressive strength of about 75 MPa and very good workability, is both to control the risk of cracking of the concrete in the structure and to reduce creep. This paper describes the feedback from experience acquired in the construction of the first HPC containment built in Civaux, France. The advantages and the difficulties encountered and overcome in the use of this material are presented, together with the results of tightness tests of the structure. The industrial mastery now achieved of this special HPC formulation also made it possible to take the performance of this concrete into account in the engineering of the work. This led to a new containment design, presented in this paper, combining HPC and very strong prestressing using 55 T 15 cables. This new design substantially improves the safety of nuclear reactors for severe accidents (core melting and hydrogen deflagration): the structure is guaranteed gas-tight up to an internal pressure of about 1 MPa.
K. Tanaka, K. Sato, S. Watanabe, I. Arima, and K. Suenaga
We developed an enhanced flowable concrete using both a binary low-heat cement and coarse aggregate of 40 mm maximum size, usable in large-scale mass concrete structures (this concrete is provided with a high flowability and an excellent resistance to segregation, and is able to be placed densely without compaction). We verified that its fundamental performance surpasses that of existing types of concrete. Further, we also verified that it possesses superior workability when compared with conventional concrete. Next, we established production, quality control, and construction methods for super-workable concrete through experiments at a large scale construction site, and utilized it in a large-scale structure. We were able to verify the following results: superior workability of the concrete because it can be spread and compacted easily; effective control over thermal cracking because concrete temperature rose very little. Furthermore, the hardened concrete is confirmed, from the core samples, to be very compact and has excellent strength. 161-493
W. F. Kepler and K. F. Von Fay
Theodore Roosevelt Dam is a rubble-masonry dam, located on the Salt River, 76 miles northeast of Phoenix, AZ. The dam will be modified by adding a mass concrete gravity section to the downstream face of the dam. Over 350,000 yd 3 of mass concrete will be placed. A high-performance mass concrete mixture was developed that met conflicting low heat and strength development requirements. The mixture needed to meet thermal requirements of no more than 45 F total adiabatic temperature rise in 20 days, and less than 5 F adiabatic temperature rise after 20 days. In contract, the mixture needed to meet early-age compressive strength requirements of 1000 psi between 3 and 7 days and have sufficient paste to insure bond between the new concrete and the original masonry structure. The Bureau of Reclamation developed a concrete mixture with a 4-in. maximum-sized-aggregate (MSA), containing 270 lb of cementitious material per pubic yard that met design requirements. The cementitious material consisted of 80 percent cement and 20 percent fly ash. A low-heat, Type II cement was used, with a heat of hydration of 65 calories per gram at 7 days. The fly ash is an ASTM class F ash. The concrete has a water-to-cementitious materials ration of 0.53. The mixture is very workable, and reaches a compressive strength of 1100 lb/in.¦ in 7 days. It has a total adiabatic temperature rise of 43.4 F, with only 2 F temperature rise after 20 days.
J. Armaghani, D. Romano, M. Bergin, and J. Moxley
A high performance concrete (HPC) mixture was developed in the laboratory and later used in a bridge construction project. The HPC mixture was designed based on 752 lb (341 kg) of cement with 0.33 water-cement ratio. The weight of the cement was partially replaced by fly ash (20 percent) and silica fume (8 percent). The concrete mixture incorporated 4.5 gal./yd 3 (22.3 L/m 3) of calcium nitrite corrosion inhibiting admixture. Other chemical admixtures included air-entraining agent, and/or standard and high range water-reducing/retarding admixtures. A wide range of field and laboratory tests were performed on fabricated concrete specimens, as well as on cores from field models and newly cast bridge members. The main tests included field and laboratory testing of permeability, and compressive strength. Results of tests on laboratory and field concrete were very close. The chloride permeability AASHTO T277) of the HPC was very low, ranging between 618 to 1055 coulombs. The compressive strength was high, ranging between 8600 to 10,670 psi (59 to 74 MPa). This study shows that laboratory produced HPC with multiple cementitious materials and chemical admixtures can be successfully implemented in construction without compromising its durability. It is also demonstrated that sacrificial concrete models cast and cured at the job site can provide accurate evaluation of the durability and performance of newly cast structures. The study also emphasizes the need to test the permeability as well as strength for more precise assessment of concrete durability.
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