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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-10 of 12 Abstracts search results
January 1, 1992
Paper describes experimental and analytical investigation of the performance of base plates subjected to relatively large overturning moments. The experimental work established performance characteristics and ultimate failure modes for four different base plate configurations in which plate thickness and bolt stiffness are independent variables. The analytical investigation used standard linear elastic finite element models to predict experimental results. Recommended finite element modeling techniques are included.
J. Furche and R. Eligehausen
Pullout tests with headed studs placed near a free edge have been carried out. In most of the tests, blow-out failure occurred. On the basis of this and other available test results, an empirical equation to calculate the failure load was derived. The equation takes into account the influence of the edge distance, the concrete strength, and the load-bearing area. The equation to calculate the failure load shows good agreement with the test results. The equation to calculate the critical edge distance at which the failure mode changes to steel rupture or to concrete cone failure is given. The values for critical edge distance are different from the values in ACI 349, Appendix B, because ACI 349 overestimates the concrete capacity for large edge distances.
T. Balough, G. Kovacshazy and A. Frigey
Sixty-six pullout tests were conducted on cast-in-place concrete anchors consisting of a threaded rod with a washer and two nuts, nonsymmetrical deformed anchors, and formed anchor heads. The purpose of the test program was to compare the behavior of these three anchors and to check the reliability of the ACI 349-85 standard calculation method. All the anchors were cast in 300 x 300 x 150 mm unreinforced concrete blocks. The test variables were concrete strength, embedment depth and edge distance. The test results showed that if the failure mode is a concrete shear cone failure, the values calculated using the ACI 349-85 standard calculation method, without a strength reduction factor, will provide a good prediction. If splitting or pullout failure occurs, the pullout force will be 25 percent lower. The effect of anchorage depth is overestimated by the ACI 349-85 standard model. A strength reduction factor = 0.50 is proposed to achieve a 95 percent probability that failure loads for steel embedment will exceed the ACI 349-85 theoretical value. Formed anchor heads are recommended as a standard.
Paper summarizes experimental investigations of the static and dynamic long-term behavior of anchors. Creep behavior and loss of anchor pretension are examined and consequences on the fatigue behavior of anchors subjected to dynamic excitations are shown. Environmental influences, such as moisture or temperature, on the long-term behavior of anchors are also discussed.
E. Vintzelou and R. Eligehausen.
An experimental program was carried out to investigate the behavior of metallic fasteners (undercut, torque-controlled, expansion, and chemical anchors) embedded in cracked concrete and subjected to shear displacements. The results show that the behavior of all three types of anchors under shear displacements is similar. Fasteners situated close to an edge and loaded towards the edge exhibit brittle concrete failure. Cyclic loadings are possible only for displacements that are much lower than the values corresponding to the monotonic peak load. Fastenings away from an edge will cause steel failure with large displacements. During cyclic loading, a severe force-response degradation was observed. Empirical formulas are proposed to predict the strength of anchors, as well as strength degradation during cyclic loading.
Paper describes design examples prepared by Subcommittee 3 of ACI Committee 349 to demonstrate application of Appendix B of the code to the design of steel embedments. The committee report (Reference 1) is included in the 1990 Manual of Concrete Practice. The paper describes some of the design examples and explains key provisions of the code.
Reinforced concrete structures will generally be cracked under service load due to tensile stresses caused by loads or by the restraint of imposed deformations. Therefore, in general, the design of anchors should be based on the assumption that the concrete is cracked. Under tension loading, anchor behavior is significantly influenced by cracks, depending on the type and design of the anchor. If the failure is caused by concrete cone break-out, the failure load is reduced by approximately 30 to 40 percent compared to the value expected in uncracked concrete. If the failure is caused by pullout (expansion or adhesive anchors), the reduction of the failure load may be much higher. Furthermore, installation inaccuracies may have a very significant negative effect on anchor behavior in cracked concrete. Under shear loading, the behavior of all types of anchors away from edges is not significantly influenced by cracks. The failure load of fastenings close to the edge is reduced by cracks by about 30 percent; however, the reduction is almost independent of the type of anchor. A method for the design of fastenings based on rational engineering models and nonlinear fracture mechanics is proposed. It distinguishes between the different loading directions and failure modes and takes into account all relevant influencing factors.
R. Cook and R. Klingner
A comprehensive research program has been conducted, dealing with ductile, multiple-anchor, steel-to-concrete connections. Based on the results of the program, behavioral models have been formulated for such connections, and design guidelines have been developed. In this paper, the program is summarized, and the principal results are reviewed.
Ninety-day load-relaxation tests at room temperature were conducted on a full range of sizes of heavy duty sleeve and lead caulking expansion anchors. The test results showed that the sleeve and lead caulking anchors on the average are able to retain only 60 and 40 percent of their initial tension load, respectively.
R. Walther, C. Sutton, and D. Meinheit
Nine equations that predict ultimate tensile capacity for expansion anchor installations failing by formation of a concrete cone are reviewed. The equations predict the tensile capacity for anchors installed in unreinforced, uncracked concrete; group and edge effects are not considered. A data base consisting of the results from 927 tests was used to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction equations. Multiple regression statistics were utilized to ascertain how individual variables affected prediction accuracy. For shallow embedments, all nine equations yield satisfactory or conservative predictions. For deeper embedments, predicted capacity is less conservative. In general, empirical equations developed by curve-fitting experimental data are more accurate than semi-empirical models.
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